 # PRISMS AND CYLINDERS: VOLUMES, SURFACE AREAS, AND WEIGHTS

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PRISMS AND CYLINDERS: VOLUMES, SURFACE AREAS, AND WEIGHTS
Unit 28 PRISMS AND CYLINDERS: VOLUMES, SURFACE AREAS, AND WEIGHTS

PRISMS A polyhedron is a three-dimensional (solid) figure whose surfaces are polygons A prism is a polyhedron that has two identical (congruent) parallel polygon faces called bases and parallel lateral edges The volume of any prism is equal to the product of the base area and the altitude

PRISMS Prisms are named according to the shape of their bases, such as triangular, rectangular, pentagonal, and octagonal Triangular Prism Rectangular Prism Pentagonal Prism Octagonal Prism

VOLUME OF A PRISM Compute the volume of the fuel tank shown in liters:
V = ABh This prism has a rectangular base so AB = length  width 60 cm 25 cm 20 cm AB = (60cm)(20cm) = 1200 cm2 Now, V = ABh = (1200 cm2)(25 cm) = cm3

Lateral Surface (Sides)
CYLINDERS A circular cylinder is a solid that has identical circular parallel bases The surface between the bases is called the lateral surface. The altitude (height) of a circular cylinder, is a perpendicular segment that joins the planes of the bases Lateral Surface (Sides) Altitude

Right Circular Cylinder
CYLINDERS The axis of a circular cylinder is a line that connects the centers of the bases In a right circular cylinder the axis is perpendicular to the bases The volume of right circular cylinders is the same as prisms: V = ABh Right Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Axis

VOLUME OF A CYLINDER Find the volume of the soup can shown below given that the bases have a radius of 8 centimeters: V = ABh The cylinder has a circular base, so AB = r2 = (8)2 = cm2 16 cm Now, V = ABh = ( cm2)(16 cm) = cm3 Ans

TRANSPOSING VOLUME FORMULAS
An engine piston has a height of 18.6 centimeters and a volume of 460 cubic centimeters. Find the radius of the piston: The piston is a circular cylinder, so V = ABh = r2h Substitute the given measurements into the formula and solve for r: V = r2h 460 cm3 = r2(18.6 cm) r = cm Ans

LATERAL AND SURFACE AREAS
The lateral area of a prism is the sum of the areas of the lateral faces. The lateral area of a cylinder is the area of the curved or lateral surface The lateral area of a right prism equals the product of the perimeter of the base and height The lateral area of a right circular cylinder is equal to the product of the circumference of the base and height The surface area of a prism or a cylinder equals the sum of the lateral area and the two base areas

SURFACE AREA EXAMPLE Find the surface area of the circular cylinder trash can below given that it has a radius of 8 inches: The surface area is equal to the sum of the lateral area and the two base areas 40” Lateral area = CBh = 2(8”)(40”) = in2 Area of base = r2 = (8”)2 = in2 Surface area = = in2 Ans

PRACTICE PROBLEMS Find the volume of a mobile home (rectangular prism) with a length of 10 meters, width of 15 meters, and height of 20 meters. Determine the lateral area of the mobile home in problem #1. Compute the surface area of the mobile home is problem #1. Find the volume of a triangular prism given that the triangular bases have sides of 8 inches, 10 inches, and 12 inches and that the prism has a height of 5 inches.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS (Cont)
Compute the volume of the interior of a pen (right circular cylinder) with a radius of 15 mm and a height of 25 mm. Find the lateral area of the pen in problem #5. Find the surface area of the pen in problem #5. Find the diameter of a circular culvert given that it has a volume of 150 cubic feet and a height of 12.5 feet.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS (Cont)
A solid steel post 27.6 inches long has a square base. The post has a volume of 110 cubic inches. Compute the length of a side of the base. Find the lateral area of a box with a length of 18 inches, width of 14 inches, and height of 12 inches.

PROBLEM ANSWER KEY 3000 m3 1000 m2 1300 m2 198.431 in3 17671.46 mm3
3.91 feet 1.996 inches 768 in2