Presentation on theme: "1.5 Elementary Matrices and a Method for Finding"— Presentation transcript:
1 1.5 Elementary Matrices and a Method for Finding An elementary row operation on a matrix A is any one of the following threetypes of operations:Interchange of two rows of A.Replacement of a row r of A by c r for some number c ≠ 0.Replacement of a row r1 of A by the sum r1 + c r2 of that row and amultiple of another row r2 of A.An n×n elementary matrix is a matrix produced by applying exactlyone elementary row operation to InExamples:
2 When a matrix A is multiplied on the left by an elementary matrix E, the effect is To perform an elementary row operation on A.Theorem (Row Operations by Matrix Multiplication)Suppose that E is an m×m elementary matrix produced by applying a particular elementary row operation to Im, and that A is an m×n matrix. Then EA is the matrix that results from applying that same elementary row operation to ATheoremEvery elementary matrix is invertible, and the inverse is also an elementary matrix.Remark:The above theorem is primarily of theoretical interest. Computationally, it is preferable to perform row operations directly rather than multiplying on the left by an elementary matrix.
3 Theorem Theorem (Equivalent Statements) If A is an n×n matrix, then the following statements are equivalent, that is, all true or all false.A is invertible.Ax = 0 has only the trivial solution.The reduced row-echelon form of A is In.A is expressible as a product of elementary matrices.
4 A Method for Inverting Matrices By previous Theorem, if A is invertible, then the reduced row-echelon form of A is In. That is, we can find elementary matrices E1, E2, …, Ek such thatEk …E2E1A = In.Multiplying it on the right by A-1 yieldsEk …E2E1In = A-1That is,A-1 = Ek …E2E1InTo find the inverse of an invertible matrix A, we must find a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces A to the identity and then perform this same sequence of operations on In to obtain
5 Using Row Operations to Find A-1 Example: Find the inverse ofSolution:To accomplish this we shall adjoin the identity matrix to the right side of A, thereby producing a matrix of the form [A | I ]We shall apply row operations to this matrix until the left side is reduced to I; these operations will convert the right side to , so that the final matrix will have the form [I | ]
7 If and n X n matrix A is not invertible, then it cannot be reduced to In by elementary row operations, i.e, the computation can be stopped.Example:
8 1.6 Further Results on Systems of Equations and Invertibility Theorem 1.6.1Every system of linear equations has either no solutions, exactly one solution, or in finitely many solutions.Theorem 1.6.2If A is an invertible n×n matrix, then for each n×1 matrix b, the system of equations Ax = b has exactly one solution, namely, x = b.Remark: this method is less efficient, computationally, than Gaussian elimination,But it is important in the analysis of equations involving matrices.
10 Linear Systems with a Common Coefficient Matrix To solve a sequence of linear systems, Ax = b1, Ax = b2, …, Ax = bk, with common coefficient matrix AIf A is invertible, then the solutions x1 = b1, x2 = b2 , …, xk = bkA more efficient method is to form the matrix [ A | b1 | b2| … | bk ], thenreduce it to reduced row-echelon form we can solve all k systems atonce by Gauss-Jordan elimination (Here A may not be invertible)
12 Theorem 1.6.3Let A be a square matrix(a) If B is a square matrix satisfying BA = I, then B =(b) If B is a square matrix satisfying AB = I, then B =Theorem 1.6.5Let A and B be square matrices of the same size. If AB is invertible, then A and B must also be invertible
13 Theorem 1.6.4 (Equivalent Statements) If A is an n×n matrix, then the following statements are equivalentA is invertibleAx = 0 has only the trivial solutionThe reduced row-echelon form of A is InA is expressible as a product of elementary matricesAx = b is consistent for every n×1 matrix bAx = b has exactly one solution for every n×1 matrix b
14 A Fundamental Problem: Let A be a fixed mXn matrix A Fundamental Problem: Let A be a fixed mXn matrix. Find all mX1 matrices b suchSuch that the system of equations Ax=b is consistent.If A is an invertible matrix, then for every mXn matrix b, the linear system Ax=b hasThe unique solution x= b.If A is not square, or if A is a square but not invertible, then theorem does notApply. In these cases the matrix b must satisfy certain conditions in order for Ax=bTo be consistent.
15 Determine Consistency by Elimination Example: What conditions must b1, b2, and b3 satisfy in order for the system ofequationsTo be consistent?Solution:
16 Example: What conditions must b1, b2, and b3 satisfy in order for the system of equationsTo be consistent?Solution:
17 Section 1.7 Diagonal, Triangular, and Symmetric matrices A square matrix in which all the entries off the main diagonal are zero is called a diagonal matrix.For example:A general nxn diagonal matrix (1)A diagonal matrix is invertible if and only if all its diagonal entries are nonzero; in this case the inverse of (1) is
18 Diagonal MatricesPowers of diagonal matrices are easy to compute: if D is the diagonal matrix (1) and k is a positive integer, thenIn words, to multiply a matrix A on the left by a diagonal matrix D, one can multiply successive rows of A by the successive diagonal entries of D, and to multiply A on the right by D, one can multiply successive columns of A by the successive diagonal entries of D.
19 Triangular MatricesA square matrix in which all the entries above the main diagonal are zero is called low triangular, and a square matrix in which all the entries below the main diagonal are zero is called upper triangular. A matrix that is either upper triangular or lower triangular is called triangular.Theorem 1.7.1The transpose of a lower triangular matrix is upper triangular, and the transpose of an upper triangular matrix is lower triangular.The product of lower triangular matrices is lower triangular, and the product of upper triangular is upper triangular.A triangular matrix is invertible if and only if its diagonal entries are all nonzero.The inverse of an invertible lower triangular matrix is lower triangular, and the inverse of an invertible upper triangular matrix is upper triangular.
20 Symmetric matrices A square matrix A is called symmetric if A=AT. A matrix A=[aij] is symmetric if and only if aij=aji for all values of I and j.Theorem 1.7.2If A and B are symmetric matrices with the same size, and if k is any scalar, then:AT is symmetric.A+B and A-B are symmetric.kA is symmetric.Note: in general, the product of symmetric matrices is not symmetric.If A and B are matrices such that AB=BA, then we say A and B commute.The product of two symmetric matrices is symmetric if and only if the matrices commute.
21 TheoremsTheorem 1.7.3If A is an invertible symmetric matrix, then A-1 is symmetric.Theorem 1.7.4If A is an invertible matrix, then AAT and ATA are also invertible.