Ladder Safety Ladders manufactured before January 1, 2006 must meet the design and construction requirements of ANSI (American National Standards Institute). Your ladder should have a label indicating it meets these requirements.
Portable Ladder Safety - Introduction Ladders are important and essential tools that are used widely in a variety of industries. They help us move up and down and work at different heights. Portable ladders, in particular, are useful tools because they can be readily moved or carried. They are simply built and come in many sizes, shapes, and styles.
Ladder Safety – Condition/Inspection Condition and inspection –Keep portable ladders in good, usable condition. Joints between steps or rungs and side rails are tight Rungs, cleats, or steps are not bent, broken or split All bolts and rivets are in place and secure Hardware, fittings and accessories are securely attached and working properly Ropes are not frayed or badly worn
Ladder Safety – Condition/Inspection Moveable parts operate freely without grinding or excessive play Safety feet and other auxiliary equipment are not excessively worn Metal components are not corroded There are no other faulty or defective components
Ladder Safety Ladders need to be inspected as follows: WHEN THE LADDER IS:DO THE FOLLOWING: First placed into service and periodically while in service Inspect the ladder for visible defects, including, but not limited to: -Working parts and -Rung or step connections to the side rails Damaged by impact or tips over Visually inspect the ladder for dents, bends, cracks or splits Check: Rung or step connection to the side rails Hardware connections Rivets for shear damage All other components
Ladder Safety Ladders need to be inspected as follows: Exposed to excessive Heat such as a fire Visually inspect the ladder for damage Test for deflection and strength characteristics Using the “in-service use tests” contained in the appropriate ANSI Exemption: Job-made ladders……
Storage Ladder Storage DO Store ladders in dry, well ventilated areas with moderate temperatures. Store ladders either vertically or horizontally with supports at each end and in the middle. Identify unsafe ladders with tags. Remove defective or unsafe ladders from service immediately. DON'T Don't store anything on a ladder. Don't paint wooden ladders with paint, only with clear preservatives, as paint can hide wear on the ladder.
Portable Ladders – Use/Abuse Although they are easy to use, they are often misused or abused, causing serious injuries and deaths. These deaths and injuries could have been significantly reduced or eliminated with proper care and use.
Varieties of Ladders To prevent injuries while using portable ladders, you need to know what kinds of ladders there are and how to use them properly. There are various types, shapes, and sizes of ladders to help you accomplish your tasks.
Varieties of Ladders Extension Ladder – 2 person job Two Way Step Ladder Platform LadderOrchard Ladder Combination Ladder
Self-Supporting Ladders Portable self-supporting ladders can stand up on their own. Standard stepladders have a front section with steps for climbing and a back section with two rear legs, which give them their stability. They must be set up on firm, level surfaces such as floors, platforms, and slabs.
Self-Supporting Ladders The standard stepladder is non-adjustable and has flat steps and a hinged back. It must have a metal spreader or locking device strong enough to securely hold the front and back sections in the open position. The back section is cross-braced and you must not use it for climbing.
Self - Supporting The ladder may also have a bucket shelf which must be able to support a load of 25 pounds. Standard stepladders are usually intended for use by only one worker at a time, unless otherwise specified on the manufacturers' or other labels.
Non Self-Supporting Non-self-supporting ladders must be leaned against a stable structure strong enough to support the weight of the ladder, user, tools, and materials being used by the worker on the ladder. They are intended for use by only one worker at a time. Commonly used non-self-supporting ladders include single ladders and extension ladders.
Non Self– Supporting Single ladders are nonadjustable and must never be tied or fastened together to form a longer ladder. Sectional ladders, which consist of two or more sections, are designed to be combined together to function as a single ladder
Portable Ladders - Falls You don't have to fall far to get hurt. Workers injured in falls from ladders are usually less than 10 feet above the ladder's base of support.
Reasons for Falls Why do people fall from ladders if they are so easy to use? Setting up on an unstable or slippery base surface is a primary reason ladders fall over. Falls involve portable ladders that move, tilt, or shift while a worker is climbing, descending, or performing a task. Standing on the top two rungs, which explicitly has a warning label DANGER, do not do!
More Reasons for Falls improperly getting onto or off of the ladder loss of balance setting up the ladder improperly overreaching by the user misstepping or a slipping of the foot while climbing or descending
More Reasons for Falls Being bumped by a Cart or other object Having a vehicle run into or bump you. People not paying attention to where they're walking.
Ladder Safety - Prevention Make sure the ladder is not placed on ice, snow, or other slippery surface unless the ladder is prevented from accidental displacement by: –Securing it –Providing the ladder with slip-resistant feet
Make sure ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height
Ladder Safety - Prevention Protect ladders that are set–up in a location where they could be displaced by workplace activities or traffic by either: –Securing the ladder to prevent accidental displacement –Or –Using a barricade to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder
Ladder Safety - Prevention Protect ladders that are set-up in front of doors that open towards the ladder by doing at least one of the following: –Block the door open –Lock the door –Guard the door to keep it from opening into the ladder
Ladder Safety - Prevention Make sure ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height Place a straight ladder so the side rails are equally supported by the top support, unless the ladder is equipped with a single support attachment Make sure the top support of the ladder is reasonably rigid and able to support the load
Ladder Safety - Prevention Climbing and descending: –Have both hands free to hold on to the ladder, or at least one hand. –Face the ladder when climbing or descending –Keep ladders free from oil, grease, or other slippery materials –Keep the area around the top and bottom of ladders clear. –Remove all items from ladder before moving it –Make sure single-rail ladders are not used
Ladder Safety – Composition/Materials Fiberglass Aluminum/Metal Wood –Besides having different ratings or load capacities, ladders may be constructed of various kinds of materials. Each material has specific care, maintenance, and storage requirements and may be preferred for specific uses, or under certain conditions.
Types of Composition WOOD Stabilitybetter because it is heavier Durabilityless – wears out faster Strength to Weight Ratiogood Weather Resistancenot as good Conductivitynon-conductive when clean and dry
Types of Composition FIBERGLASS Stabilityless because it is lighter Durabilitybetter – material lasts longer Strength to Weight Ratiohigh Weather Resistancebetter (not same conditions as wood) Conductivitynon-conductive when clean and dry (PREFERRED)
Types of Composition ALUMINUM Stabilityless – lightest of all Durabilitybetter Strength to Weight Ratiohigh Weather Resistancebetter Conductivityconductive – do NOT use near exposed electrical sources/in a storm
Composition - Aluminum Electrocution Hazard This Ladder Conducts Electricity Do Not Use Around Electrical Equipment or other equivalent wording Do not use a metal ladder when working around energy sources. Metal ladders must be labeled with a DANGER warning sticker indicating:
Wood, metal, and fiberglass ladders may also have some specific construction requirements. Metal or Fiberglass –must have slip or skid-resistant feet AND steps or rungs that are corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or treated to minimize possible slipping For example:
Ratings Duty RatingLadder TypeUseMaximum intended load (pounds) Extra Heavy – Duty IAIndustry, utilities, contractors 300 Heavy-DutyIIndustry, utilities, contractors 250 Medium-DutyIIPainters, offices, light maintenance 225 Light-DutyIIIGeneral household use 200
Ratings and Labels Although there are many different kinds of portable ladders, they all receive a rating based on their maximum intended or working load - the total weight that they can safely support. This includes the weight of the worker, tools, and materials. Type I-AA - 375 lbs. –Special duty industrial use, such as CATV, utilities, contractors, and higher capacity needs Type I-A -300 lbs. –Extra-heavy-duty industrial use, such as utilities and contractors Type I - 250 lbs. –Heavy-duty industrial use, such as utilities and contractors Type II - 225 lbs. –Medium-duty work, such as painting, offices for building maintenance, and light industrial use Type III - 200 lbs. –Light duty work, such as household use
These ratings must meet certain American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards and they must be indicated on the duty rating sticker or manufacturer's label. ANSI requires that every ladder be labeled with this information so users can determine if they have the correct type ladder for the task/job. Ratings and Labels
Information Contained on Labels Besides their ratings, labels and markings found on manufactured ladders contain product information, such as: Manufacturer's Name Ladder's Model Number/Name Month and Year of Manufacture Ladder's Size/Length, Maximum Working Length, and Highest Standing Level
Help Yourself & Others Before you use a ladder, check its rating to see if you have the right ladder for the job. Be sure not to subject the ladder to a work load greater than its rated capacity. And, always read manufacturers' labels and follow their recommendations. Do yourself a favor and avoid a fall and injury to yourself. If you see someone doing it wrong, say something!
Warning labels Manufactured ladders have warning markings and labels, such as "CAUTION" and "DANGER," which are usually in red or yellow. They often also have "SAFETY" labels which give information on how to use the ladders safely.
Ladder Safety Quiz You have to fall more than 15 feet from a ladder before you get hurt. Portable Ladder Safety True False FALSE Workers injured in falls from ladders are usually less than 10 feet above the ladder's base of support.
Portable Ladder Safety A) Reaching too far out away from the ladder. B) Misstep or slip of the foot while climbing. C) Setting up the ladder on an unstable or slippery surface. D) All of the above. Injuries involving falls from ladders might be: D – all of the above
A ladder is rated according to A) its size B) how it is to be used C) the total weight that it can safely support D) the kind of material it is made of (C) the total weight that it can safely support
Labels You don't need to read any of the labels on a ladder for information other than to find out the ladder's Type. True False FALSE