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How to write a perfect synthesis essay.  The college Board wants to determine how well the student can do the following:  Read critically  Understand.

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Presentation on theme: "How to write a perfect synthesis essay.  The college Board wants to determine how well the student can do the following:  Read critically  Understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to write a perfect synthesis essay

2  The college Board wants to determine how well the student can do the following:  Read critically  Understand texts  Analyze text  Develop a position on a given topic  Support a position with appropriate evidence  Incorporate outside sources into the texts of the essay  Cite sources used in the essay

3  The prompt contains an Introduction and description of an issue that has varying viewpoints associated with it.

4  Along with the topic, you will be given a selection of sources:  Text  Non-fiction  Poetry  Chart  Letter  News article  Photo  Fiction  cartoon

5  After carefully reading and annotating the sources, you must respond to the prompt and integrate and correctly cite at least three of the sources in your response.

6 The first possibility is an EXPOSITORY Develop the thesis and support with specific examples from sources by any of these strategies: Compare and contrast Cause and effect Analysis

7  The second kind of synthesis essay presents an ARGUMENT.  For an argumentative essay, you will take a position based on the prompt, and support, refute, or qualify and support with the sources.

8  Deconstruct the synthesis prompt  Read and annotate each of the given texts related to the synthesis prompts  Decide how you will address the prompt

9  5-6 minutes going back to the texts and deciding which you will use in your essay  8-10 minutes planning the support of your position  20 minutes writing the essay  3-4 minutes checking to make certain that you have incorporated at least three sources into your response  3 minutes proofreading

10  You must spend time carefully reading and deconstructing the prompt!  Carefully read introductory material and the assignment.  THE INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL IS CENTRAL TO COMPLETING THE PROMPT AS DIRECTED. DO NOT SKIP IT!

11 Do this: I have decided to use Source A _ Source B _ Source C _ Souce D _ Set up your thesis paragraph Direct reference to the prompt and/or introduction Clearly state your point (main idea) Write your thesis

12  Use a variety of ways to integrate your source material:  Begin with an attribution (According to ___)  Paraphrase and cite (source C).  Clips from direct quotes and cite Contrary to what the court sees as “permissible public use” (source C), a government foreclosing on a home goes against personal property rights.

13  Do not rehash or summarize!  Add a pertinent memorable point or come full circle from your opening.

14  An argument has two sides, and to effectively argue, it’s essential to present points of view within the context of your paper.

15  Classical  Rogerian  Toulmin

16 Began in ancient Greece around 5 th century B.C.  Communicated orally and designed to be easily understood by listeners  Based on formal logic, including the syllogism  Six main components

17 1) Introduction: captures attention of audience; urges audience to consider your case 2) Statement of Background: narrates the key facts and/or events leading up to your case 3) Proposition: states the position you are taking, based on the information you’ve already presented, and sets up the structure of the rest of your argument 4) Proof: discusses your reasons for your position and provides evidence to support each reason 5) Refutation: anticipates opposing viewpoints; then demonstrates why your approach is the only acceptable one (i.e. better than your opponents’) 6) Conclusion: summarizes your most important points and can include appeals to feelings or values (pathos)

18  Developed by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin in the 1950’s  Emphasizes that logic often based on probability rather than certainty  Focuses on claims  Three primary components

19 Claim = My parents should allow me to go to my friend’s party on Friday night. Data = The parents of nearly all of the juniors at UHS have given their children permission to attend this party. Warrant = My parents should act in accordance with the other parents of juniors at UHS.

20 What if my parents don’t “buy” my warrant? What if they don’t think they should necessarily do what other parents are doing? How can I still get permission to attend the party? Or at least have a better chance of getting permission?

21 What might be more convincing data for an audience of parents? What might be a warrant that most parents will share?

22  Developed by psychologist Carl Rogers (also in the ’50s)  Emphasizes problem-solving and/or coming to consensus  Allows the author to appear open- minded or even objective  Appropriate in contexts where you need to convince a resistant opponent to at least respect your views

23  Introduction:  statement of problem to be solved or question to be answered  Summary of Opposing Views:  described using a seemingly objective persona  Statement of Understanding: concedes circumstances under which opposing views might be valid  Statement of Your Position  Statement of Contexts:  describes contexts in which your position applies/works well  Statement of Benefits:  appeals to self-interest of readers who may not yet agree with you; demonstrates how your position benefits them

24 Set up of the thesis paragraph  Introductory Statement  Statement of the problem to be solved  Summary of understanding of each side  Thesis :Begin with Although or While First = Concession Second = Position you are supporting

25  Possible Thesis  Although laws restricting cell phone use while driving are an infringement on personal privacy and a violation of First Amendment rights, legislation must be passed that bans the use of all communication devices while driving to protect others from distracted drivers.  Although the use of communication devices while driving is proven to be distracting and potentially dangerous, laws banning usage infringe on personal privacy, and an individual’s First Amendment rights must be protected at all costs.

26  1. Review the notes on the synthesis essay.  2. Read and outline the introductory material and prompt.  3. Decide what position you will take and list your reasons and any examples that come to mind.  4. Decide how you will respond to the prompt.  5. Read and annotate each source. Decide how you will use it in your essay (don’t forget concession)  6. Make a chart of those you plan to use.  A___ B ___ C ___ D ___ E ___ F ___

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