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Introduction Muscular tissue enables the body and its parts to move

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0 Chapter 6 The Muscular System

1 Introduction Muscular tissue enables the body and its parts to move
Movement caused by ability of muscle cells (called fibers) to shorten or contract Muscle cells shorten by converting chemical energy ATP (obtained from food) into mechanical energy, which causes movement Three types of muscle tissue exist in the body

2 Muscle Tissue Types of muscle tissue (F 6-1)
Skeletal muscle—also called striated or voluntary muscle Is 40% to 50% of body weight (“red meat” attached to bones) Microscope reveals crosswise stripes or striations Contractions can be voluntarily controlled

3 Muscle Tissue Cardiac muscle—composes bulk of heart
Cardiac muscle cells branch frequently Characterized by unique dark bands called intercalated disks- coordinate contraction Interconnected nature of cardiac muscle cells allows heart to contract efficiently as a unit

4 Muscle Tissue Smooth Muscle- Nonstriated muscle or involuntary muscle—also called smooth or visceral muscle Lacks cross stripes or striation when seen under a microscope; appears smooth Found in walls of hollow visceral structures such as digestive tract, blood vessels, and ureters Contractions not under voluntary control; movement caused by contractions is involuntary Function—all muscle cells specialize in contraction (shortening)


6 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Each skeletal muscle is an organ composed mainly of skeletal muscle cells and connective tissue Most skeletal muscles extend from one bone across a joint to another bone Muscles have a fixed origin and a movable insertion attached by tendons

7 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Parts of a skeletal muscle (F 6-2) Origin—attachment to the bone that remains relatively stationary or fixed when movement at the joint occurs Insertion—point of attachment to the bone that moves when a muscle contracts Body—main part of the muscle

8 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Muscles attach to the bone by tendons—strong cords of fibrous connective tissue; some tendons enclosed in synovial-lined tubes and are lubricated by synovial fluid; tubes called tendon sheaths Bursae—small synovial-lined sacs containing a small amount of synovial fluid; located between some tendons and underlying bones

9 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Microscopic structure (6-3) Contractile cells called fibers—grouped into bundles Fibers contain thick myofilaments (containing the protein myosin) and thin myofilaments (composed of actin)

10 Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Basic functional (contractile) unit called sarcomere; sarcomeres separated from each other by dark bands called Z lines Sliding filament model explains mechanism of contraction Thick and thin myofilaments slide past each other as a muscle contracts Contraction requires calcium and energy-rich ATP molecules

11 Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Movement Muscles produce movement; as a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone; movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion

12 Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Groups of muscles usually contract to produce a single movement Prime mover—muscle whose contraction is mainly responsible for producing a given movement Synergist—muscle whose contractions help the prime mover produce a given movement Antagonist—muscle whose actions oppose the action of a prime mover in any given movement

13 Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Posture A specialized type of muscle contraction, called tonic contraction, enables us to maintain body position In a tonic contraction, only a few of a muscle’s fibers shorten at one time Tonic contractions produce no movement of body parts

14 Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Tonic contractions maintain muscle tone called posture Good posture reduces strain on muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones Poor posture causes fatigue and may lead to deformity

15 Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Heat production Survival depends on the body’s ability to maintain a constant body temperature Fever—an elevated body temperature; often a sign of illness Hypothermia—a reduced body temperature Contraction of muscle fibers produces most of the heat required to maintain normal body temperature

16 Fatigue Reduced strength of muscle contraction
Caused by repeated muscle stimulation Repeated muscular contraction depletes cellular ATP store and outstrips the ability of the blood supply to replenish oxygen and nutrients

17 Fatigue Contraction in the absence of adequate oxygen produces lactic acid, which contributes to muscle soreness Oxygen debt—term used to describe the metabolic effort to burn excess lactic acid that may accumulate during prolonged periods of exercise; the body is attempting to return the cells’ energy and oxygen reserves to pre-exercise levels

18 Role of Other Body Systems in Movement
Muscle functioning depends on the functioning of many other parts of the body Respiratory, circulatory, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems play essential roles in producing normal movements Multiple sclerosis, brain hemorrhage, and spinal cord injury are examples of how pathologic conditions in other body organ systems can dramatically affect movement

19 Motor Unit (F 6-4) Stimulation of a muscle by a nerve impulse is required before a muscle can shorten and produce movement A motor neuron is the specialized nerve that transmits an impulse to a muscle, causing contraction

20 Motor Unit (…Cont’d) A neurotransmitter junction is the specialized point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber it innervates A motor unit is the combination of a motor neuron with the muscle cell or cells it innervates

21 Muscle Stimulus A muscle will contract only if an applied stimulus reaches a certain level of intensity A threshold stimulus is the minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract Once stimulated by a threshold stimulus, a muscle fiber will contract completely, a response called all or none (Cont’d…)

22 Muscle Stimulus (…Cont’d) Different muscle fibers in a muscle are controlled by different motor units having different threshold-stimulus levels Although individual muscle fibers always respond all or none to a threshold stimulus, the muscle as a whole does not Different motor units responding to different threshold stimuli permit a muscle as a whole to execute contractions of graded force

23 Types of Skeletal Muscle Contraction p.117
Twitch and tetanic contractions Twitch contractions are laboratory phenomena and do not play a significant role in normal muscular activity; they are a single contraction of muscle fibers caused by a single threshold stimulus Tetanic contractions are sustained and steady muscular contractions caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession ex. muscle spasms, cramps, & some seizures

24 Types of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Isotonic contractions Contraction of a muscle that produces movement at a joint During isotonic contractions, the muscle changes length, causing the insertion end of the muscle to move relative to the point of origin Most types of body movements such as walking and running are caused by isotonic contractions

25 Types of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Isometric contractions (F 6-5) Isometric contractions are muscle contractions that do not produce movement; the muscle as a whole does not shorten Although no movement occurs during isometric contractions, tension within the muscle increases

26 Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscles
Exercise, if regular and properly practiced, improves muscle tone and posture, results in more efficient heart and lung functioning, and reduces fatigue

27 Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscles
Muscles undergo changes related to the amount of work they normally do Prolonged inactivity causes disuse atrophy Regular exercise increases muscle size, called hypertrophy (cont’d)

28 Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscles
Strength training is exercise involving contractions of muscles against heavy resistance Strength training increases the numbers of myofilaments in each muscle fiber, and as a result, the total mass of the muscle increases Strength training does not increase the number of muscle fibers

29 Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscles
Endurance training is exercise that increases a muscle’s ability to sustain moderate exercise over long periods; it is sometimes called aerobic training Endurance training allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to a muscle via increased blood flow Endurance training does not usually result in muscle hypertrophy

30 Skeletal Muscle Groups
Muscles of the head and neck (F 6-7) Facial muscles Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Zygomaticus

31 Skeletal Muscle Groups
Muscles of mastication Masseter Temporal Sternocleidomastoid—flexes head Trapezius—elevates shoulders and extends head

32 Skeletal Muscle Groups
Muscles that move the upper extremities Pectoralis major—flexes upper arm Latissimus dorsi—extends upper arm Deltoid—abducts upper arm Biceps brachii—flexes forearm Triceps brachii—extends forearm

33 Skeletal Muscle Groups
Muscles of the trunk (F 6-8) Abdominal muscles Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominis Respiratory muscles Intercostal muscles Diaphragm

34 Skeletal Muscle Groups
Muscles that move the lower extremities Iliopsoas—flexes thigh Gluteus maximus—extends thigh Adductor muscles—adduct thighs Hamstring muscles—flex lower leg Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps femoris

35 Skeletal Muscle Groups
Muscles that move the lower extremities Quadriceps femoris group—extend lower leg Rectus femoris Vastus muscles Tibialis anterior—dorsiflexes foot Gastrocnemius—plantar flexes foot Peroneus group—flex foot

36 Types of Movements Produced by Skeletal Muscle Contractions (F 6-9,10)
Flexion—movement that decreases the angle between two bones at their joint: bending Extension—movement that increases the angle between two bones at their joint: straightening

37 Types of Movements Produced by Skeletal Muscle Contractions (F 6-11)
(…Cont’d) Abduction—movement of a part away from the midline of the body Adduction—movement of a part toward the midline of the body Rotation—movement around a longitudinal axis (Cont’d…)

38 Types of Movements Produced by Skeletal Muscle Contractions
(…Cont’d) Supination and pronation—hand positions that result from rotation of the forearm; supination results in a hand position with the palm turned to the anterior position; pronation occurs when the palm faces posteriorly (Cont’d…)

39 Types of Movements Produced by Skeletal Muscle Contractions
(…Cont’d) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion—foot movements; dorsiflexion results in elevation of the dorsum or top of the foot; during plantar flexion, the bottom of the foot is directed downward

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