Presentation on theme: "RELATIVE CLAUSES Grammar:. Contents How to form relative clauses? Relative pronouns Subject pronoun or Object pronoun Relative adverbs Defining relative."— Presentation transcript:
Contents How to form relative clauses? Relative pronouns Subject pronoun or Object pronoun Relative adverbs Defining relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses How to shorten relative clauses? Exercises
How to Form Relative Clauses? Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend: A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl? You put in the additional information to clarify your question – the girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom? Relative Clause
Relative pronouns Use whosubject or object pronoun for people whichsubject or object pronoun for animals and things whomobject pronoun for people thatsubject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses
Subject pronoun or Object pronoun ☺If relative pronoun is Subject: E.g.: I have a friend who plays a guitar. ☺If relative pronoun is Object: E.g.: He showed me the rocks which he had collected. … + relative pronoun + V + O + … … + relative pronoun + S + V + …
Relative Adverbs This is the shop in which I bought my bike. → This is the shop where I bought my bike. Relative adverbsMeaningUse whenin/on whichrefers to a time expression wherein/at whichrefers to a place whyfor whichrefers to a reason
Types of Relative Clauses Defining or Restrictive Non-defining or Non-restrictive
Defining Relative Clauses essential to the meaning of a sentence. tell us exactly who/what is being talk about. cannot be removed. E.g.: The people who live across the road are friendly.
Non-defining Relative Clauses give us an extra piece of information. are contained within commas (,) can be removed. E.g.: My next-door neighbor, who has a nice car, is friendly.
How to Shorten Relative Clauses? In defining relative clauses: ▪ subject pronoun cannot be omitted. ▪ object pronoun can be omitted. In non-defining relative clauses: ▪ Relative pronoun must be included. ▪ that cannot be used.
Complete the definitions A banana A hat A pony A dentist A bus is a horse which is very small. is a person who pulls teeth. is a fruit which is long and yellow. is a big car which carries a lot of people. is a thing which people wear on their heads.
Choose the correct relative pronoun 1.This is the bank _______ was robbed yesterday. 2.A boy ______ sister is in my class was in the bank at that time. 3.The man _________ robbed the bank had two pistols. 4.He wore a mask _________ made him look like Mickey Mouse. 5.He came with a friend ________ waited outside in the car. 6.The woman ________ gave him the money was young. 7.The bag ________ contained the money was yellow. 8.The people ________ were in the bank were very frightened. 9.A man ________ mobile was ringing did not know what to do. 10.The car ________ the bank robbers escaped in was orange. 11.The robber ________ mask was obviously too big didn't drive. 12.The man ________ drove the car was nervous. 13.He didn't wait at the traffic lights ________ were red. which whose who whose who
Combine the sentences using relative clauses 1.Samuel Johnson was the son of a bookseller. Samuel Johnson was born in 1709. → Samuel Johnson ______________________________________ 2.In 1728, he went to Oxford. He studied at Pembroke College in Oxford. → In 1728, he went ______________________________________ 3.Johnson had to leave Oxford without a degree. He was too poor to pay the fees. → Johnson ______________________________________ 4.In 1737, Johnson moved to London. There he wrote poetry, essays and biographies. → In 1737, Johnson ______________________________________ 5.In 1746, Johnson started to write his dictionary. It took him 9 years to complete. → In 1746, Johnson started ______________________________________ 6.His home at that time was in 17 Gough Square in London. It is a museum now. → 17 Gough Square in London ______________________________________ 7.In this house, his wife died in 1752. Her name was Elizabeth Porter. → In this house his wife ______________________________________ 8.In 1755, the work was published. It was called A Dictionary of the English Language. → In 1755, the work ______________________________________, who was born in 1709, was the son of a bookseller. to Oxford, where he studied at Pembroke College. moved to London, where he wrote poetry, essays and biographies., to write his dictionary, which took him 9 years to complete., which is a museum now, was his home at that time., which was called A Dictionary of the English Language, was published., who was too poor to pay the fees, had to leave Oxford without a degree., whose name was Elizabeth Porter, died in 1752.
Gap – filling Did you ever hear about the man _______ eats paper? This is a true story _______ took place in Australia from I heard. It's the story of a man _______ suffers from some sort of disease _______ makes him crave cellulose ( the material our of which paper is made of) He used to eat newspapers until his wife decided that it would be better if she made paper for him (so he wouldn't have to eat the ink _______ covers newspapers, you know). She didn't want to be known as the woman _______ husband was obliged to eat inky newspapers because he had no kind person to make newsprint for him. His wife is a woman _______ loves a joke, so she makes him paper _______ has all sorts of exotic flavours. So, now he only eats the paper _______ his wife makes and only eats ordinary newspapers when he is travelling, for instance when he is in New York. He likes to visit New York, because it is _______ the newspapers are the thickest. He is happiest on Sunday, when he is in New York, because that is _______ the newspapers are really thick. Thick newspapers, for him, are like a banquet at an excellent restaurant. who which who that which whose whowhich that where when