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What You Will Learn Components of a computer’s system software The importance of an operating system Functions of an operating system Types of user interfaces.

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Presentation on theme: "What You Will Learn Components of a computer’s system software The importance of an operating system Functions of an operating system Types of user interfaces."— Presentation transcript:

1 What You Will Learn Components of a computer’s system software The importance of an operating system Functions of an operating system Types of user interfaces Strengths and weaknesses of the most popular operating system The six essential utilities Data backup procedures System Software: Keeping the computer running smoothly Lesson 5

2 What is system software? All of the programs needed to keep the computer and it’s peripheral devices running smoothly Two major categories:  Operating system (OS)  System utilities

3 What is the purpose of the operating system (OS)? Starting the computer Managing programs Distributing memory Coordinates processor and peripheral devices Enables user to interact with computer

4 What happens when a computer starts? Cold booting process begins when power is turned on 1.ROM loads BIOS (basic input output system) into computer’s memory 2.BIOS conducts a Power-on-self-test (POST) to check the input/output system for operability 3.BIOS searches for OS; Settings in the CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) determine where to look for OS 4.OS’s kernel ( essential OS components) are loaded into memory from storage 5.OS takes control of the computer

5 What happens when the OS takes control? 1. The system is configured from the OS registry 2.Drivers and utility programs are loaded into memory 3.System utilities ( volume control, antivirus software, etc) are loaded into memory 4. Authentication or user login occurs 5.User interface begins, enabling user interaction with computer programs

6 What is a user interface? The part of the operating system that enables the user to interact with it Two types of user interfaces:  Command-line- Requires the user to type keywords or commands to enter data or give instructions  Graphical user interface (GUI)- Uses a graphics environment made up of objects, icons, buttons and menus; User is able to use a pointing device (mouse, joy stick, etc) or keyboard to enter data and issue commands

7 Types of User interfaces Command-lineGraphical user interface

8 What are the different types of OS’s? Single- tasking- Only one application program runs at a time; Must close one program before starting another  MS DOS  PC DOS Multitasking- Many programs running at the same time; User may switch between programs at anytime  Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, ME, CE and XP  Mac OS  UNIX  LINUX

9 Types of Operating Systems MS-DOS WINDOWS XPMAC OS LINUXUNIX


11 What is multitasking? Ability of the operating system to run more than one application program at a time Accomplished by:  Foreground application- Active program or program in use  Background application- Inactive programs or programs not in use

12 Multitasking

13 How does the OS manage memory? Allocates memory area for each running program; Keeps programs from interfering with each other Uses virtual memory as an extension of RAM; Pages of data and instructions are swapped between RAM and the hard drive if RAM is full Works with direct memory access (DMA) controller to permit peripherals access to RAM

14 Managing Virtual Memory

15 How does the OS handle input and output? The OS monitors input/output devices through interrupt handlers


17 UNIX Developed by AT&T in 1970’s First preemptive multitasking system Developed concept of file management and path names Client/server networking system Widely used by corporations

18 MS-DOS Developed for IBM PCs in 1981 Uses command-line interface Use is diminishing

19 MAC OS First to use graphical user interface in 1984 Easiest operating system for beginners

20 Windows 3.X Includes Windows 3.0, 3.1, 3.11 and Windows for Workgroups 3.1 Not a true operating system Uses cooperative multitasking

21 Windows 95 and 98 Windows 95  True operating system  Uses preemptive multitasking  Downward compatible with DOS  Considered a transitional system Windows 98  Improved version of Windows 95  More stable than Windows 95

22 Windows CE System used in PDAs or palmtops Runs simplified versions of windows programs Data can be transferred to PCs Includes handwriting and speech recognition

23 Windows NT and 2000 Windows NT  Designed for client/server systems  Two components: Windows NT Workstation Windows NT Server  Oriented to business needs  Offers security, remote administration, directory services and web server Windows 2000  Updated version of Windows NT Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Server

24 Windows 2000

25 Windows ME Improved version of Windows 98 Designed for home users Support for home computer networks

26 Windows XP Replaces all previous versions of Windows Three versions:  Windows XP Home Edition  Windows XP Professional  Windows XP Server

27 Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 Includes all of the updates since 2002 Experience more of the photos, music, television, movies, and games you want in any room of your home

28 Linux Developed in 1991 by UNIX Competes with Windows and MAC Powerful and Free Growing fast in acceptance Uses Apache web server


30 What are system utilities? Programs that help the operating system manage the computer system’s resources Types of utilities:  File management  File finders  Backup utilities  Antivirus software  File compression  Disk scanning  File defragmentation

31 What are file management utilities? Known as a file manager Enables the user to perform various tasks with files, folders, and directories on storage devices Tasks include:  Creating folders  Saving, deleting, copying and moving files and folders  Examining the contents of files  Launching application programs

32 What are file finders? A program that enables the user to find files on a storage device

33 What are backup utilities? A program that enables the user to copy data from the hard disk to another storage medium

34 What is antivirus software? A program that protects the computer from computer viruses

35 What is a file compression utility? A program that reduces the size of a file and combine multiple files and folders into one file

36 What is a disk scanning utility? A program that detects and fixes physical and logical problems on storage devices

37 What is a file defragmentation utility? A program that moves data on a storage device to improve performance


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