Presentation on theme: "DUAL-POLARIZATION OF WSR-88D NETWORK"— Presentation transcript:
1 DUAL-POLARIZATION OF WSR-88D NETWORK Edward Fenelon, National Weather Service, Chicago, ILEmergency Management Meeting
2 Dual-Polarization Radar: Coming Soon! Impacts entire WSR-88D networkSeveral new products availableTraining content still evolvingDoppler Radars
3 Dual-Polarization Radar Technology: Current Schedule for Upgrade KLOT will be part of the Beta Test periodFebruary 28 – March 13, 2011Beginning in Fall 2010, NWS will upgrade WSR-88D radars to collect dual-polarization data. This will provide several new and vastly different products in addition to what is currently disseminated. It should take approximately 3 years to upgrade all of the existing WSR-88D radars.
4 Impacts of the New Technology Dual Pol is the biggest radar system upgrade since the WSR-88D was fieldedNo data for almost 2 weeks – have to use surrounding radarsSteep learning curve to use new data and master the new system – not unlike when it was first installed.Benefits will surely outweigh these short terms imapcts!!!
6 What is Dual-Polarization? A radio wave is a series of oscillating electromagnetic fields. If we could see them, they would look like this:All weather radars, including NEXRAD, measure horizontal reflectivity. That is, they measure the reflected power returned from the radar's horizontal pulses. Polarimetric radars, on the other hand, measure the reflected power returned from both horizontal and vertical pulses.. These waves can have different orientation (or polarization). From a graphical standpoint you can imagine two different orientations of these electromagnetic fields:Polarization currently used by WSR-88D’s
7 What is Dual-Polarization & How Is It Different from Conventional Doppler Radar?? Most radars (WSR-88D included) transmit and receive radio waves with a single, horizontal polarizationPolarimetric radars transmit and receive both horizontal and vertical polarizationsThis is most commonly done by alternating between horizontal and vertical polarizations with each successive pulseGet a better pictures of the targets that reflect energy back to the radarExtra data provides information about size and shape information of the targets in the air – up to now have to make guesses about targets based on knowledge of environment
8 Polarimetric Radar:Polarimetric radars measure both the horizontal and vertical dimensions of cloud and precipitation particles – can determine SIZE and SHAPEBy transmitting both horizontally and vertically polarized signals, increased information will be available including information about the shape of the hydrometeors with dual polarization radar.
9 Why are two poles better than one? By comparing these reflected power returns of the two phases in different ways (ratios, correlations, etc.), we are able to obtain information on the size, shape, and ice density of cloud and precipitation particles, as well as better identify non-weather echoes.
10 Benefits of Dual-Polarization: Detect when hail is present in a thunderstormDetect areas of heavy rain better (Improved precipitation estimation via determining droplet distributions (rainfall rates))Differentiate rain, snow, melting snowIdentify non-weather echoes more easilyDetect debris lofted by significant tornadoesWill take a few years for benefits to fully materialize
11 Using Shape and Variety Info to Differentiate Rain, Snow, and Melting Snow Common problem with mixed precipitation events – have to rely upon surface data and environmental information to infer precip type.
12 Using Shape and Variety Info to Differentiate Rain, Snow, and Melting Snow Surface obs and spotter reports still provide a critical piece of information!
13 Using Shape and Variety Info to Differentiate Rain, Snow, and Melting Snow Correlation Coefficient (CC)0.96<CC<1 – Small hydrometeor diversity*0.85 <CC<0.96 – Large hydrometeor diversity*CC < 0.85 – Non-hydrometeors present* refers to sizes, shapes, orientations, etc.
14 High CC indicates all one precip type Low CC indicates mix (melting) Using Shape and Variety Info to Differentiate Rain, Snow, and Melting SnowReflectivity:Correlation Coefficient:High CC indicates all one precip type Low CC indicates mix (melting)
15 Specific Benefit Example: Melting Layer Detection Algorithm MLDA – computer algorithm output that identifies layer where falling precipitation starts melting – I.e. where the radar beam intersects the level of the atmosphere where frozen precipitation starts melting.Most directly benefits aviation interests, but also useful to note trends.Product is generated on each elevation angle that the radar scans.
16 Using Shape and Variety Info to Better Detect Hail Identifying hail in thunderstorms – currently radar, computer models, and upper air observation s to identify storms that may have hail. Dual pol allows us to differentiate directly from the radar data.Show have better recognition of storms with hailReports of hail size, hail damage, and accumulation of hail still critical to have via spotters
17 Using Shape and Variety Info to Better Detect Hail Z on right: note high reflectivity core in purpleZDR on left: note minima of near zero where highest Z co-located. This indicates hail core!ZDR is a measurement related to the returned energy difference between the vertical and horizontal radar pulses. Large positive values indicated targets that are generally much larger horizontally than vertically. Values near zero indicate the targets are generally spherical. Negative values indicate targets are larger in the vertical than in the horizontal.
18 ZDR > 0:Positive ZDR indicates a mean power return profile wider than it is tallLarger positive ZDR usually indicates the presence of larger liquid dropsFalling rain drops flatten into “hamburger bun” shape (generally range from 0.5 to 5.0 dB)
19 ZDR ~ 0:ZDR values around zero indicate a spherical mean profile power returnTumbling hail stones result in nearly spherical return
20 Rain/Sleet Changing to Snow: Left: High ZDR indicates liquid covered sleet/snowRight: 2 hours later, precip changing to snow. Note decrease in ZDRZDR also will be very useful for winter applications, here note the decrease in ZDR associated with winter precip event indicating transition from liquid to snow.
21 Heavy Rain Detection Should Improve with Dual Pol Upgrade High reflectivity on left – heavy rain, hail, or even non wx echos – can you tell which is what area has heavier rainfall from the other?Dual pol products help – in this case Specific differential phase – data on the right helps identify area of locally heavier rain.Specific Diff Phase (KDP) is a measurement of difference between the horizontal and vertical pulses phase changes as they travel through the atmosphere.Specific Diff Phase values are largest when going through areas dominated by large rain drops. In some cases, regions with high KDP values may also contain melting hail.
22 Dual Pol Radars Can Detect Debris From Significant Tornadoes Hook echo region of supercell can sometimes be characterized by area of enhanced reflectivity with low ZDR values and low CC values.Beneficial when tornado obscured:At NightRain WrappedA radar signature commonly referred as “Tornado Debris Signature” (TDS) can be identified with dual-pol radar.
23 Potential Derived Products: Hydrometeor Classification Algorithm Assigns hydrometeor classification to each range bin (11 types). Uses base output, MLDA output and “fuzzy logic”Hydrometeor: any particle that can be a cloud – raindrop, snowflake, hailstone, sleetHCA: predominate hydrometeor in the radar beam – includes biological and other non-weather targets. Displays which of the predefined categories most likely was the cause of the radar echo at that location.Available for each elevation angle the radar scans. Lowest 4 available externally.
24 Estimation of Rainfall Amounts Old:OHP, THP, STPNew: (based on dual pol data)OHA, STA, DPR1 hour and storm total are analogous to previous rainfall analysis system. Will keep old and also have new, and improvements will be added incrementally – so will have 2 sets to compare. Will have 2 sets of data to use. Best set to use will vary by event, and won’t know which is best going into any particular event. Have additional information to compare, and a good idea to compare both sets of data to observed rainfall amounts.Rate product did not exist before – gives the rainfall rate in inches per hour. Benefit: don't have to wait for accumulations to occur before thinking of actions to take. High rainfall rates, 2-4 inches per hour or greater, even for short durations, can give the possibility of the onset of flash flooding, especially in urban areas. In this example, rate product indicated rates of 4-6 inches per hour rates, several hours before final rainfall accumulations were calculated.
25 Estimation of Rainfall Amounts Areas either side of hail shaft – similar values of Z, but area NW has much lower values of ZDR – much higher concentration of smaller drops
26 Want to Learn More Details about Dual Polarization Radar? Dual-Polarization Radar Training for NWS PartnersMeteorologistsNon-Meteorologists who use the dataTechnology OverviewHydrometeor Classification ProductEstimated Rainfall Amount Products
27 Summary Dual-Polarization will arrive KLOT March 1, 2011 New base products and new derived products, but nothing gone from what you’re currently usingImproved precipitation estimates, identification of freezing/frozen/liquid precipitation types, location of hail cores, updrafts, etc.Identification of non-meteorological returns, and better filtering from processed data
30 What does a polarimetric radar measure? All of the “legacy” products will be available that are currently being created:Reflectivity for Horizontal Polarization (Z)- Base Velocity (V)- Spectrum Width (SW)New products that will be available:- Differential Reflectivity (ZDR)- Correlation Coefficient (CC)- Differential Phase (DP)We will examine these more closely in a bit.
31 Differential Reflectivity (ZDR) Ratio of reflected horizontal and vertical power returnsDepends on the median shape and size of scatterersGood indicator of drop shapethe shape is a good estimate of average drop sizeZDR proportional to: Horizontal Power Returned Vertical Power Returned
32 Differential Reflectivity (ZDR): ZDR > 0: positive ZDR means horizontally oriented mean profileZDR < 0: negative ZDR indicates vertically oriented mean profileZDR ~ 0: Spherical mean profile
33 ZDR Differential Reflectivity Summary Values of ZDR help identify hydrometer type+ZDR (up to 1.5): liquid drops greater than 1-2 mm++ZDR (> 3): large liquid drops, perhaps with ice cores0 ZDR: spherical or effectively spherical, most likely hail if coincident with higher ZUsed to identify hail shafts, convective updrafts, regions of liquid vs. frozen hydrometeorsMake inferences on hydrometer type
34 Correlation Coefficient (CC): Correlation between the horizontal and vertical backscattered power from the scatterers within a sample volume (zero to 1)Think “Spectrum Width” for hydrometeorsLarge spread of hydrometeor sizes and shapes results in lower correlationThe correlation coefficient is a correlation between the reflected horizontal and vertical power returns. It is a good indicator of regions where there is a mixture of precipitation types, such as rain and snow.
35 CC: What is it good for? Reflectivity: Correlation Coefficient: Absolutely Something! Say it Again!Reflectivity:Correlation Coefficient:Note area on left of each image: Low CC identifies this as non-meteorological returns.
36 CC in Winter Precipitation: Reflectivity:Correlation Coefficient:High CC indicates all one precip type Low CC indicates mix (melting)
37 CC Summary CC -> Infer a side distribution of hydrometers Values > 0.95 indicate consistent size, shape, orientation, and/or phase of hydrometeorsValues < 0.95 indicate a mixture of size, shape, orientation, and/or phase of hydrometeorsVery low (0.80 or less) means non-meteorological scatterers, sometimes very large hail