Presentation on theme: "Close Reading Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Close Reading Instruction A Sharper Focus on CCSS Reading Anchor Standard 1:Close Reading InstructionFacilitator materials:Computer/projectorFacilitator notes and PowerPointHighlighters for Learning Trajectory activityPost-itsParticipant materials:PowerPoint copiesThings Fall Apart Exemplar text copiesLeft Side/Right Side Margin strategy copiesLearning trajectory handoutGraphic organizer guidance handoutVideo Analysis recording sheetText Selection Considerations handoutInferential question stems handoutGraphic organizer samples handoutClose Reading bookmarksReading Anchor Standard 1 “Look Fors”Reading Anchor Standard 1 “Look Fors” reference sheetFinal reflection form
2 Session GoalsReview the 3 CCSS English Language Arts Instructional ShiftsDeconstruct Reading Anchor Standard 1Deepen understanding of the close reading processLearn strategies to support the close reading processUnderstand the connections between effective close reading instruction and CCSS Anchor Reading Standard 1.Facilitator welcomes participants.Facilitator asks a participant to read the slide.Facilitator:
3 HOPE HIGH SCHOOL READING ANCHOR STANDARD:#1CITING TEXTUAL EVIDENCE Session Goals:Gain an understanding of the Common Core State Standards’ shift to encourage a closer reading of text by asking questions that are text-dependent questions.Learn how to support students as they undergo the kind of close reading the CCSS requires by responding to a series of text –dependent questions.Be able to identify text-dependent questions and recognize the importance of students staying deeply connected to the text.Use of common text to create text dependent questions and revise existing questions.
4 Do Now Jot down 3 things you know about Close Reading. 2. Share with a partner.Do Now: Please jot down 3 things you know about close reading. Share with a partner. (3 min)This is a very quick activity and does not require a whole group share.
5 Look Fors:Look For #1: Evidence of Creating an environment that supports reading for knowledge and the application of close reading techniques. Look For#2: Evidence of Text analysis that helps students identify relationships and author perspectives that assist in providing textual evidence to support inferences. Look For #3: Evidence of textual support when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text as evidenced by student exemplars.
6 Common Core State Standards 3 ELA/Literacy Instructional Shifts Building knowledge through content-rich nonfictionReading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informationalRegular practice with complex text and its academic language
7 #1 Citing of Textual Evidence Observable Evidence LF1: Conducting Close Reading SessionsUsing anchor charts that reinforce close readingGraphic organizers to draw evidence form textsReading with a pencil (pen)
8 #1 Citing of Textual Evidence Observable Evidence LF2: Teacher modeling the following:Creating and answering text dependent questionsAnnotations guidelines to set a purpose for readingDiscussion protocols to elicit accountable talk sessionsUsing graphic organizers to draw evidence form the text.
9 #1 Citing of Textual Evidence Observable Evidence LF3: Students engaging in discussions about the textStudents orally citing evidence to support their answers to questions based on their readingWritten responses using the text to support their writing
12 Final ReflectionPlease complete the reflection form for this session. Be sure to list any supports you think you will need to implement this work effectively.
13 The “Look For” reference sheet is a guide for administrators to use when visiting classrooms. It lists only observable evidence related to the Close Reading Strategy work we will be doing to support our focus on Reading Anchor Standard 1, Look For #2.
14 The Lens For This Work Look For #1 Look For #2 Look For #3 Evidence of creating an environment that supports reading for knowledge and the application of close reading techniques.Look For #1Evidence of text analysis that helps students identify relationships and author perspectives that assist in providing textual evidence to support inferences.Look For #2Evidence of textual support when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text as evidenced by student exemplars.Look For #3These are the “Look Fors” that administrators and content area teams will use as guidance to support our work in Close Reading.We are concentrating on Look For #2 at this time.
15 Rigorous Discussions are about… Asking questions and posing problemsVoicing ideas using evidenceListening to othersMonitoring for rigorResponding to different ideasConstructing understandingFacilitator asks a participant to read the slide.These are some of the elements of a rigorous discussion.Rigorous discussions will result when the teacher:Asks questions that arouse curiosity and interestAsks questions to ascertain student knowledge and understanding (text dependent questions)Asks questions that require creative and critical thinking and analysisUses clear, precise language when posing questions to studentsUses wait time to allow students to process their thinkingProvides opportunities for students to elaborate and build upon ideas and contributions of othersProvides opportunities for students to question and challenge each others’ ideasChecks for understandingUses prompts and cues to probe student thinkingBackground for Facilitator:True rigor is creating an environment in which each student is expected to learn at high levels, each student is supported so he or she can learnat high levels, and each student demonstrates learning at high levels (Blackburn, 2008)Rhodes (2007) and others now recognize three characteristics in students who are engaged in rigorous learning:They exhibit a set of behaviors that include task persistence, regular attendance, and sustained attention.Emotionally, they demonstrate excitement, interest in learning, and a sense of belonging.They show cognitive engagement by taking on academic challenge, positive self concepts, and a desire to continue learning.
16 Activity: Try out the Left Side/Right Side Margin Strategy PART 11) Break up into groups of 3-4.2) Using Common Core Exemplar “Things Fall Apart”, teams work together.3) First, number each paragraph (for chunking purposes).4) Then, read the text for the first time.5) In the left margin, summarize each chunk, in 10-words or less.PART 26) Next, read the text a 2nd time.7) In the right-hand margin, complete a specific task for each chunk.8) This may include: Use a power verb to describe what the author is DOING.(For example: Describing, illustrating, arguing, etc.) Note: It isn’tenough for students to write “Comparing” and be done.We will now try out the Left Side/Right Side Margin Strategy to understand how this strategy can be used in our courses.Use the CCSS text Exemplar Things Fall Apart for this activity. Each participant will need a copy of the text.PART 11) Break up into groups of 3-4.2) Using Common Core Grade 10 Exemplar “Things Fall Apart”, teams work together.3) First, number each paragraph (for chunking purposes).4) Then, read the text for the first time.5) In the left margin, summarize each chunk, in 10-words or less.PART 26) Next, read the text a 2nd time.7) In the right-hand margin, complete a specific task for each chunk.8) This may include: Use a power verb to describe what the author is DOING.(For example: Describing, illustrating, arguing, etc.) Note: It isn’tenough for students to write “Comparing” and be done.
17 Annotations for Consistency Across Grade Levels ? Use a question mark for questions you have about the text! Use an exclamation point for a reaction to what you are reading* Use an asterisk for a comment about the text_ Underline to identify a key idea or detail in the textIt is important to have consistency in marking or annotating the text as students move from one grade level to the next. In grades 6-10 Springboard uses metacognitive markers which is marking the text with symbols to reflect the thinking the student is doing as he/she reads. The markers allow students to track responses to texts and use those responses as a point of departure for talking or writing about texts. These symbols help the reader go back and identify evidence when discussing or writing about a text. For the purpose of consistency, it is recommended that all grade levels use these symbols.
18 Example of Student Annotation in 11th Grade English This is an example of student annotation in an 11th grade English class. On the next slide we are going to take a look at how we can have a consistent way of marking the text.
19 Strategies to Support Students with Close Reading Annotating the TextAnnotation is a note of any form made while reading text. Annotation is “Reading with a Pencil”Annotation is not highlighting.Annotation is a note of any form made while reading text. We can think of it as “reading with a pencil”.Annotating puts the reader actively and immediately in a "dialogue” with an author and the issues and ideas you encounter in a written text. It's also a way for the reader to have an ongoing conversation with themselves as they move through the text. (Note: Highlighting can seem like an active reading strategy, but it can actually distract from the business of learning and dilute your comprehension. Those bright yellow lines you put on a printed page one day can seem strangely cryptic the next, unless you have a method for remembering why they were important to you at another moment in time. Pen or pencil will allow you do to more to a text you have to wrestle with. (
20 Close Reading in 3 Easy Steps Highlight the headings. Read the text. What is this text mostly about? Discuss your thoughts with a partner.Step 2Read the text again. Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph.. Annotate the text as you read.Step 3Go back to the text again, looking for evidence that will help you answer thequestions. Write the question number next to the text evidence you used in your answer (Q1,Q2, Q3, etc.).Facilitator Note: Be sure to discuss the below about text selection, critical component in planning for a close reading lesson.Step 1- The purpose is comprehending the main gist of the text (KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS)Set the purpose for reading and have students read text as independently as possible.Depending on the text complexity and the readers, the first read may be doneindependently, as a read aloud/think aloud, or paired or shared reading. The first readshould be without building background; students should be integrating their backgroundknowledge with the text as they read. Focus on the key ideas and details in the text, makingsure that readers know the main idea, story elements, or key details that the authorincludes.Step 2- Understanding how the author wrote the text to convey specific ideas and emotions (Craft and Structure)For a second, close read, you may even select a portion or chunk of the text that is “close read worthy.” That is, have students reread a section that includes complex elements or ideas that they should explore to arrive at a deep understanding of the text. After rereading, students discuss the text with partners or in small groups, focusing on the author’s craft and organizational patterns. This may include vocabulary choices, text structure or text features that they author included. Use a Text Dependent Question to focus or set a purpose for a close rereading. After students share with partners or in small groups, have groups share out with entire class to assess understanding.Step 3- Going further/deeper with the text from the information gleaned from earlier readings by citing specific textual evidence to answer questions. (e.g., meaning/purpose/theme)The third close reading of a text should go even deeper, requiring students to synthesize and analyze information from several texts or media. They may record their ideas on the text, sticky notes, or a graphic organizer.(Refer to Inferential Questions Handout)Close Reading includes: Using short passages and excerpts Diving right into the text with limited pre-reading activities Focusing on the text itself Rereading deliberately Reading with a pencilUsing graphic organizers Noticing things that are confusing Discussing the text with othersThink-Pair Share or Turn and Talk frequently small groups and whole class Responding to text-dependent questions(Remember…Teachers should ensure their students have enough context and background knowledge to access the text, either through prior instruction and/or pre-reading activities. That said, previewing the content of the text undermines the value of a Close Reading exercise. If a teacher feels the need to deliver content from the text rather than allow students to discover the content independently and through text-dependent questions and discussion, then the text is not appropriate for a Close Reading lesson. While teachers need to exercise discretion in the selection of texts and related instructional practices, it is essential that all students engage in Close Reading of complex texts that meet grade-level expectations established by the Common Core.
21 Text Selection for Close Reading This graphic along with the questions to consider below are in a handout for participants.Text Selection: Close read-worthy texts include enough complex ideas worthy of exploring and discussing to sustain one or more days of instruction. According to Tim Shanahan, close reading is a multiday commitment to a text; you want students to read a text that offers rich enough vocabulary, ideas, and information to read, examine, and discuss over those days without feeling like you’re beating a dead horse.When selecting a text, you need to consider the three components of text complexity: Qualitative measures, Quantitative measures, and the Reader and the Task. Each of these is equally important when considering the complexity of a text.Questions for each component of text selection to consider:Qualitative Does this text offer ideas or informationthat further students understanding ofthe topic? Does the text include a text structure that … Does the text follow familiar language conventions—sentence structures, word choices, etc.? What background knowledge do my students need to have to be successful with this text?Quantitative Is this text on an appropriate readability level for the students in my group? How can I scaffoldmy students to ensure their success with this text?The primary leveling tool used by the Common Core is Lexile. For more information orto find the lexile of a text, visit Lexile.com.Reader and Task Considerations How much prior knowledge do my students have about this topic? How interested are they? What will be difficult for my students in reading this passage?
22 Deconstruct Anchor Standard 1 Read closely (or close reading)Reading that emphasizes not only surface details but the deeper meaning and larger connections between words, sentences, and the full text; this also demands scrutiny of craft, including arguments and style used by the author.Make logical inferencesTo infer, readers add what they learned from the text to what they already know about the subject; however, for the inference to be logical, it must be based on evidence from the text.Cite specific textual evidenceAll claims, assertions, or arguments about what a text means or says require evidence from within the text itself, not the reader’s opinion or experience; students should be able to quote or refer to a specific passage from the text to support their idea.Keep in mind that the Reading Anchor Standard 1 requires students to determine what the text says explicitly. By explicitly we mean clearly stated in great or precise detail.
23 Focus: CCSS Reading Anchor Standard 1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.The CCSS Anchor Standard 1 in Reading states that students:Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; citespecific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. (2010,p. 10)Furthermore, according to the National Education Association (NEA, 2013), “80-90 percent of the [CCSS] reading Standards in each grade require text-dependent analysis” (p. 18). Therefore, students’ successful and meaningful engagement with text necessitates teachers’ careful planning of close reading.The Anchor Standards for Reading found in the Common Core State Standards prioritize the close reading skill of extracting evidence and making inferences (Standard 1) when reading complex text (Standard 10). All of the intervening standards (Standards 2-9) call on students to answer specific text dependent questions — from determining the central idea or theme (Standard 2) to building knowledge by comparing two or more texts (Standard 9) — but each intervening standard critically relies on the core close reading skill of “citing specific textual evidence” when reading complex text to “support conclusions” (Standards 1 and 10). This text dependent approach is one of the key shifts embodied in the CCSS, and moving students and teachers towards understanding and embracing close reading when appropriate is a key step to implementing the CCSS. (The goal of close reading is to enable students to deeply engage with challenging and high quality text. Eventually, through close reading, students will be able to read increasingly complex text independently, relying only on what the author provides in the text to support their comprehension and evaluation of the text.