Presentation on theme: "Teaching American History"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching American History Opposing ViewpointsTeaching American HistoryIn Miami-Dade CountyNovember 2, 2012Fran Macko, Ph.D.
2 Framing the SessionWhat skills do the Common Core State Standards require students to master?How will the CCSS impact assessment?What strategies can teachers use to support in mastering the CCSS?
3 What are the Common Core Content Standards for History? Embedded in the CCSS for Literary in grades 6-12 are standards for literacy in history/ social studies.These standards:are based on teachers using their content area expertise to help students meet the particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language in their content area.are not meant to replace content standards but rather to supplement them. States may incorporate these standards into their standards for those subjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards.focus on the reading, comprehension and analysis of increasingly complex informational text.
4 The standards are divided into three broad categories: Key Ideas and DetailsCraft and StructureIntegration of Knowledge and IdeasEach category is further divided into three specific skills.
5 Read the CCSS standards for the grade you teach and make a list of the skills that students will need to master to meet each of the standards for that grade.Form groups of middle and high school and discuss your list.Create a master list of skills for your grade level.
6 What skills are consistent across the grade levels? How do the skills build in sophistication across the grades?Where do the skills for literacy and history intersect?How might we organize these skills to simplify the process?
7 The Common Core Learning Framework ContextualizationEstablishing time, scope and SequenceUnderstanding the big pictureEstablishing the values and beliefs of the timeCraft and StructureIdentifying and defining key termsDetermining the main ideaIdentifying the author’s bias or point of viewKey Ideas and DetailsAssessing the reliability of the informationEvaluation of argument and reasoningComparing ideas within and across textsIntegration of Knowledge and IdeasAnalysis of multiple sources and perspectivesUnderstanding multiple perspectivesAssessing different interpretations over time
8 How will the Common Core impact assessment? Common Core Assessments are currently in development.They will most likely ask students to:read, comprehend and analyze a pair or set of documentsthe documents may include fiction as well as informational textcompare and contrast documents and/ or identify common thematic threadssynthesize information and apply it to a writing task
9 Building Student Understanding of Point of View Understanding point of view is a critical skill of reading and thinking like an historian.Every document, image and text is a reflection of its author’s worldview and beliefs.Bias and author reliability need to be factored into the reading and analysis of any historical source.
10 What is the Opposing Viewpoints Strategy? The Opposing Viewpoints strategy supports students in many of the Common Core skills:comparing how individuals interpret the same eventdistinguishing fact from opinionanalyzing information within an historical viewpointconstructing historical argumentswriting coherent and well supported essaysThe strategy uses a graphic organizer.
11 What are the steps in the process? Develop the essay question that asks students to compare two interpretations of an event, or select one interpretation and support it.Select the sources for the activity.Ask:What point of view do the resources I use reflect?Are there other important viewpoints that are essential to a deeper understanding of the event or concept?What resources will provide other points of view?
12 What are the steps in teaching the strategy? Build or access prior knowledge of the event.What do we know about this event?Who were the decision makers at the time?What was their viewpoint on the issue?Use the textbook interpretation of the event as a starting point.
13 Introduce the first source and establish the historical context. What do we know about the author of the source?What is the significance of the date of the source?What is the historical context of the source?Have students read/view and discuss the source in small groups.
14 Have students complete the graphic organizer with: What are the key points or arguments presented in the source?Summarize the viewpoint expressed in the source in a few sentences.Write a thesis statement that reflects the viewpoint of the author.Have students cite specific text to support their answers where possible.
15 Repeat the process with the second source. Debrief the activity with the class.Guiding questions include:What did we know about this concept, issue or event? (our prior knowledge)What do we now know? (as a result of the analysis of the documents)How did our analysis of different viewpoints deepen our understanding?How do the author and date of a source affect viewpoint?Have students apply their analysis to the writing task.
17 Grade 8-The Essential Question Beginning the new nation: What were the major issues and challenges surrounding the ratification of the Constitution?
18 Grade 11-The Essential Question World Wars- What were the major political, social and economic causes and effects of World War I and World War II?
19 Modeling the Strategy-Middle School Ratifying the Constitution Working with a partner, make a list of 5 major issues and challenges that surrounded the ratification of the Constitution.Use document #1 as a reference.
20 Modeling the Strategy: Viewpoint #1 Read “Anti Federalist #84.Discuss the text and complete the graphic organizer.Discuss your answers with your group.
21 Modeling the Strategy: Viewpoint #2 Read “Federalist #84.Discuss the text and complete the graphic organizer.Discuss your answers with your group.
22 Modeling the Strategy- High School Post War Arms Reduction Working in a group of 3, make a list of 5-7 facts about the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.Use document #1 as a reference.
23 Modeling the Strategy: Viewpoint #1 Read the excerpt from Lyndon Baines Johnson “Remarks on the Signing of Nonproliferation Treaty (July 1, 1968).Discuss the text and complete the graphic organizer.Discuss your answers with your group.
24 Select one of the following documents: India and NPTFrance and NPTAustralia and NPTRead your text and complete the graphic organizer.Discuss and compare your answers with your group.
25 Debrief and Discussion Debrief the activity with your group.Guiding questions include:What did we know about the topic?What do we now know?How did our analysis of different viewpoints deepen our understanding?How do the author and date of a source affect viewpoint?
26 Factors to Consider in Selecting Sources The selection of sources for Opposing Viewpoints depends upon a number of factors:The content introducedThe grade levelThe need to differentiate based on student strengths and areas of weaknessHowever, each source should provide a different point of view on the topic or event.
27 Adapting Opposing Viewpoints to Your Classroom How might you use Opposing Viewpoints in your social studies classroom?What adaptations would you make to the strategy?What other document pairs could you use to teach the topic?How might you modify or lift text for students?Turn and talk with a partner.
28 Next Steps for Opposing Viewpoints Once students have analyzed different points of view on a topic, event or individual, they can:Debate a particular viewpoint or interpretation.Write a position paper in which they construct an historical argument.Research other perspectives on the topic and add to the graphic organizer.Select a point of view and role play, write a journal entry or letter from that perspective.Research the author and date of the source and discuss how historical context affects viewpoint.What other next steps can you think of? Turn and talk with a colleague.