2 Table of contents What is Teamwork & Team Building Why Should We Be a Team?How does a Team Work Best?Team Morale Depends OnTeamwork SkillsStages in Team BuildingRecipe for Successful Team
3 What is Teamwork & Team Building Concept of people working together as a teamTeam playerA team player is someone who is able to get along with theircolleagues and work together in a cohesive groupTeam BuildingProcess of establishing and developing a greater sense of collaboration and trust between members
5 Why Should We Be a Team?When staff use their skills and knowledge together, the result is a stronger agency that can fulfill its mission“To provide accurate information that would assist individuals in achieving a better quality of life.”People working together can sustain the enthusiasm and lend support needed to complete the work of each program.
7 How does a Team Work Best? A Team succeeds when its members have:a commitment to common objectivesdefined roles and responsibilitieseffective decision systems, communication and work proceduresgood personal relationshipsAccording to Bob Mendonsa and Associates’ web pagetrainingplus.com on Team building :Team Building is a process and not an event.Team Building is about both willingness and ability. Sometimes teams problems occur because team members lack important skills. Sometimes there are trust issues.Team Building must address individual and group issues. People do not “disappear” when they choose to belong to a group. Any team building effort must address the strengths and development needs of individual team members that impact the group as a whole.Of course the corollary is true and groups or teams fail when they:Think differentlyHave poor leadershipHave communications difficultiesHave competition between members
8 Team Morale Depends OnSupportResourcesCommunicationPersonalities
10 Teamwork Skills Listen Question Persuade Respect Help Share Participate
11 Some People Think Teams are Not Productive The Egyptian and Chinese Difference1111
12 Stages in Team Building FormingStormingNormingAs the team matures, members gradually learn to cope with each other and the pressures that they face. As a result, the team goes through the fairly predictable stages noted on the slide.Performing
13 Stage 1: FORMING The Team defines the problem agrees on goals and formulates strategies for tackling the tasksdetermines the challenges and identifies information neededIndividuals take on certain rolesdevelops trust and communicationTo help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic.You may want to include some activities to illustrate trust and/or communication skills in a team.
14 Team Roles - Leader Encourages and maintains open communication Leads by setting a good exampleMotivates and inspires team membersHelps the team focus on the taskFacilitates problem solving and collaborationEncourages creativity and risk-takingRecognizes and celebrates team member contributions
15 Devil's Advocate/Skeptic Other Team Roles – Members Can Formally or Informally Take on These RolesInitiatorRecorderDevil's Advocate/SkepticOptimistTimekeeperGate KeeperSummarizerInitiator - Someone who suggests new ideas. One or more people can have this role at a time.Recorder - This person records whatever ideas a team member may have. It is important that this person quote a team member accurately and not "edit" or evaluate them.Devil's Advocate/Skeptic - This is someone whose responsibility is to look for potential flaws in an idea.Optimist - This is someone who tries to maintain a positive frame of mind and facilitates the search for solutions.Timekeeper - Someone who tracks time spent on each portion of the meeting.Gate Keeper - This person works to ensure that each member gives input on an issue. One strategy to do this is to ask everyone to voice their opinion one at a time. Another is to cast votes.Summarizer - Someone who summarizes a list of options.
16 From Individuals A Group Forms Help members understand each otherMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Extraverts IntrovertsSensors intuitiveThinker FeelersJudger PerceiverBy selecting one from each category, we define our personality type, ESTJ, ENTJ…INFPTeam members need to understand and appreciate the other individuals or personality types in their group.History of “type”In 1921, Carl Jung a psychoanalyst and disciple of Sigmund Freud realized that behavior that seemed unpredictable could be anticipated if one understood the underlying mental functions and attitudes people preferred and published his theory in a book called Psychological Types.In 1923, Katharine Briggs read Jung’s book, adopted his model and interested her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers in the theory. Myers and Briggs built on Jung’s work, expanded it and gave it a practical application. They determined that there were four personality preference scales and 16 distinct personality types. They developed and began giving their Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test instrument in the 1940s. The four scales are listed on the slide and the definitions of each end of a dimension is:Extraverts – focus their attention and energy on the world outside of themselves; need to experience the world to understand it.Introverts – focus their attention and energy on the world inside of themselves; need to understand world before experiencing it.Sensors – Concentrate on what can be seen, heard, felt, smelled and tasted; focus on what is real and concreteintuitive – interested in meanings, relationships, and possibilities based on facts; focus on implications and inferencesThinkers – prefer decisions that make sense logically; make decisions by analyzing and weighing the evidenceFeelers – make decisions on how much they care or what they feel is right; view themselves as empathetic and compassionateJudgers – seek to regulate and control life; like to have issues resolvedPerceivers – seek to understand life rather than controlling it; like to stay open to all kinds of possibilities.
17 Relevance to Teams (E/I) ExtravertsNeed to think aloudGreat explainersMay overwhelm othersIntrovertsNeed time to processGreat concentrationMay not be heardTo be an effective team member:Extraverts shouldBe prepared to stop before you fall into redundancy and overkillControl your tendency to speakMake a special effort to listen carefully, avoid interruptingStop, Look and ListenIntroverts:Share more quickly and spontaneously thoughts and ideasRule out nothing as being too trivial and meaninglessDon’t hold others to the first words out of their mouths. Push for meaning and clarity
18 Relevance to Teams (N/S) intuitiveGreat at big pictureSee connectionsMay make mistakes in carrying outplansSensorGreat executorsMay miss big picture, relative importanceTo be an effective team member:iNtuitive’s should:Use your imagination to show othersKeep as many alternatives on the table as possibleDon’t let facts stifle your creativitySensor’s should:Express the problem in real, tangible and specific terms.Demand that terms be defined and described accurately and quoted facts are realContinue to push for common sense
19 Relevance to Teams (T/F) ThinkerSkillful at understanding how anything worksFeelerKnows why something mattersIn order to be an effective team member:Thinker’s should:Help others sort out where and when they become too attached to the problem.Continue to push for precision. Redefine and rephrase the ideaFeeler’s should:Admit when your personal values are clouding an issueMake sure everyone gets a chance to speak, is listened to and is affirmed in their ideas, but don’t overemphasize harmony.
20 Relevance to Teams (J/P) JudgerGood at schedules, plans, completionMakes decisions easily (quickly)May overlook vital issuesPerceiverAlways curious, wants more knowledgeMay not get around to actingTo be an effective team member:Judger’s should:Keep the process or task orientedHelp bring definition to the processMake sure that the goals are turned into actionPerceiver’s should:Help keep everyone from going with the first solutionPlay the devil’s advocateDon’t keep offering new ideas once the group has defined a solution
21 What Type are You? Online Personality Tests Jung types win/JTypes1.htmKeirsey types in/keirsey/newkts.cgiThere are several online tests that the participants can take to help them identify their personalities. If time permits you may want to pause here and have the participants take one of the tests and discuss the resultsIts these personality types that individuals bring to their team during the forming stage. Helping understanding the different types will help the individuals begin to work together.
22 Stage 2: STORMING During the Storming stage team members: realize that the task is more difficult than they imaginedhave fluctuations in attitude about chances of successmay be resistant to the taskhave poor collaborationThis is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities.Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.
23 Stage 3: NORMING During this stage members accept: their team team rules and procedurestheir roles in the teamthe individuality of fellow membersTeam members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helping each other.During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress.In the context of the computational science project, the students have probably found a mentor who is helping them and have narrowed their project focus.
24 Behaviors Competitive relationships become more cooperative. There is a willingness to confront issuesand solve problems.Teams develop the ability to express criticism constructively.There is a sense of team spirit.During this stage, you should encourage team members to:do detailed planningdevelop criteria for completion of goalsbuild on positive norms and change unhealthy normsencourage continued team spiritNow that the team is working well, it is important for team members to learn to communicate with each other including how to constructively criticize when necessary.
25 Giving Constructive Feedback Be descriptiveDon't use labelsDon’t exaggerateDon’t be judgmentalSpeak for yourselfBe descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examplesDon’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it.Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issueDon’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child.Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves
26 Giving Constructive Feedback Use “I” messages.Don’t present your opinions as facts.Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback.Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used.Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you.Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts.Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.
27 Receiving Feedback Listen carefully. Ask questions for clarity. Acknowledge the feedback.Acknowledge the valid points.Take time to sort out what you heard.Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver.Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples.Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said.Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgment about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsibleTake time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.
28 Stage 4: PERFORMING Team members have: gained insight into personal and team processesa better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknessesgained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differencesdeveloped a close attachment to the teamDuring the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment.Examples of the results of good team work can be seen on the Video tapes and CDs from the National Expos. The presentation itself is an example of team work.The duration and intensity of these stages vary from team to team. Sometimes Stage 4 is achieved in a meeting or two; other times it takes months. Understanding the stages of growth will keep you from overreacting to normal problems and setting unrealistic expectations. Don’t panic. With patience and effort the assembly of independent individuals will grow into a team.
29 Recipe for Successful Team Commitment to shared missions and objectivesClearly define roles and responsibilitiesUse best skills of eachAllows each to develop in all areasTo summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance.Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals.A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or researchClearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
30 Recipe for Successful Team Effective systems and processesClear communicationBeneficial team behaviors; well-defined decision procedures and ground rulesBalanced participationAwareness of the group processGood personal relationshipsClear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting.Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressingWell-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by pollingBalanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talentsEstablished ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the teamAwareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works togetherUse the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data