1. Name at least 4 meanings of the word ‘law’ 2. Find synonyms for: ◦ behaviour ◦ lay down ◦ law-making (adj.) ◦ a written set of rules issued by an authority ◦ to be in accordance with (a law)
3. Who does these actions: ◦ enact, ◦ enforce, ◦ interpret, ◦ practise law.
Laws are usually enacted by the legislative branch of the government. Once a regulation enters into force, the citizens of that country must conform to it. Any conduct contrary to that regulation is interpreted as a violation of the regulation and may lead to penalties. These are given by the judiciary or institutions which are responsible for enforcing the regulation.
Zakone obično donosi zakonodavna vlast. Kada neki propis stupi na snagu, građani te zemlje moraju ga se pridržavati. Bilo kakvo ponašanje suprotno tome propisu smatra se kršenjem istog i može biti kažnjeno. Kazne određuje sudstvo ili institucije odgovorne za provođenje tog propisa.
family law constitutional law criminal law public law administrative law labour law procedural law company law private law civil law substantive law commercial law What are the Croatian terms for the above?
family law – obiteljsko pravo constitutional law – ustavno pravo criminal law – kazneno pravo public law – javno pravo administrative law – upravno pravo labour law – radno pravo procedural law – procesno pravo company law – pravo (trgovačkih) društava private law – privatno pravo civil law – građansko pravo substantive law – materijalno pravo commercial law – trgovačko pravo
Consider the relationships between the following Great Britain The British Isles Wales England The United Kingdom Ireland Scotland Northern Ireland
1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2. The Republic of Ireland Great Britain: England, Wales and Scotland Certain political and legal independence England and Wales share a common legal system, while Scotland and Northern Ireland have separate legal systems
COMMON LAW COMMON LAW – substantive law and procedural rules created by judicial decisions made in the courts STATUTE LAW STATUTE LAW – laws enacted in Parliament (statutes, i.e. Acts of Parliament) EQUITY EQUITY – a parallel system to common law EU LAW EU LAW – EU legislation and decisions of the Court of the EU applicable in all Member States
Norman Conquest before the Norman Conquest (1066), laws were local and based on custom, administered by feudal courts, no centralised system Norman Kings – political and administrative unification introduced a national legal system and a system of courts Henry II Henry II (1154-89) - the common law system was instituted in its entirety
judicial precedents national legal system based on case law, which developed into judicial precedents – the basis of common law to the present day common law – a collection of court rulings (precedents) which have the power of law and must be followed by judges – previous decisions must be repeated provides examples of rulings, not general principles
remedies common law system proved rigid in its practices and its remedies often led to unsatisfactory results dissatisfied litigants turned to the monarch the monarch forwarded these petitions to the Lord Chancellor (Keeper of the King’s Conscience)
the Court of Chancery was formed to deal with these petitions fairness developed into a separate system within English law known as EQUITY, as the Lord Chancellor was not bound by precedents administered by common law courts, but was rather guided by equity, i.e. fairness
e.g. where common law could only impose a payment of damages, equity had the option to issue an injuction or order specific performance equity soon established jurisdiction over matters where common law was failing, and as such continued to exist for five centuries
The Supreme Court of Judicature Acts 1873-1875 reformed the system of courts and brought together the common law courts and the courts of Chancery the Court of Chancery became the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, which it remains until the present time equity has its own set of precedents where common law and equity conflict, equity prevails courts fused but not the law! litigants can seek legal and/or equitable remedies from the same court
1. The part of law concerned with the punishment of offences defined as crimes by the law 2. The branch of law concerned with family matters 3. The law of state regulating its domestic affairs 4. The part of law concerned with the constitution or government of the state, or the relationship between the state and citizens 5. The part of law concerned with income and taxes
1. The branch of law primarily concerned with the rights and duties of individuals towards each other 2. The part of law consisting of rules which determine how a case is administered by the courts 3. The body of law which deals with the powers of the executive or administrative organs of the state 4. A body of rules that control or affect the rights of states in their relations with each other and of individuals in relation to foreign states 5. The law that determines the rights and duties, used by the courts in making decisions