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**Signals and Systems – Chapter 5**

The Fourier Transform Prof. Yasser Mostafa Kadah

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Textbook Luis Chapparo, Signals and Systems Using Matlab, Academic Press, 2011.

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**Fourier Transform Definition**

x(t) X()

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**Existence of Fourier Transform**

The Fourier transform of a signal x(t) exists (i.e., we can calculate its Fourier transform via this integral) provided that: x(t) is absolutely integrable or the area under |x(t)| is finite x(t) has only a finite number of discontinuites as well as maxima and minima These conditions are “sufficient” not “necessary”

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**Fourier Transforms from Laplace Transforms**

If the region of convergence (ROC) of the Laplace transform X(s) contains the j axis, so that X(s) can be defined for s= j, then:

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**Fourier Transforms from Laplace Transforms - Example**

Discuss whether it is possible to obtain the Fourier transform of the following signals using their Laplace transforms:

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Linearity Fourier transform is a linear operator Superposition holds

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**Inverse Proportionality of Time and Frequency**

Support of X() is inversely proportional to support of x(t) If x(t) has a Fourier transform X() and ≠0 is a real number, then x(t) is: Then,

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**Inverse Proportionality of Time and Frequency - Example**

Fourier transform of 2 pulses of different width 4-times wider pulse have 4-times narrower Fourier transform

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Duality By interchanging the frequency and the time variables in the definitions of the direct and the inverse Fourier transform similar equations are obtained Thus, the direct and the inverse Fourier transforms are termed to be dual

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Duality: Example

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Signal Modulation

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**Signal Modulation: Example**

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**Fourier Transform of Periodic Signals**

Periodic Signals are represented by Sampled Fourier transform Sampled Signals are representing by Periodic Fourier Transform (from duality)

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**Fourier Transform of Periodic Signals: Example**

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**Parseval’s Energy Conservation**

Energy in Time Domain = Energy in Frequency Domain

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**Symmetry of Spectral Representations**

Clearly, if the signal is complex, the above symmetry will NOT hold

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**Convolution and Filtering**

Relation between transfer function and frequency response:

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Basics of Filtering The filter design consists in finding a transfer function H(s)= B(s)/A(s) that satisfies certain specifications that will allow getting rid of the noise. Such specifications are typically given in the frequency domain.

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Ideal Filters (a) Low-Pass (b) Band-Pass (c) Band-Reject (d) High-Pass

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**Time Shifting Property**

Example:

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**Differentiation and Integration**

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**Inverse Fourier Transform - Duality**

Recall from duality property that direct and inverse Fourier transforms are dual Compute Inverse Fourier Transform as a Fourier Transform with reflected time variable Same procedure is used for forward and inverse Fourier transforms 𝑥 𝑡 ↔ 𝑋(Ω) 2𝜋𝑥 Ω ↔ 𝑋(−𝑡)

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**Problem Assignments Problems: 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.18, 5.20, 5.23**

Partial Solutions available from the student section of the textbook web site

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