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Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph.D. Portions of this power point taken from Mash & Wolfe’s Instructor’s Manual.

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Presentation on theme: "Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph.D. Portions of this power point taken from Mash & Wolfe’s Instructor’s Manual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph.D. Portions of this power point taken from Mash & Wolfe’s Instructor’s Manual.

2 Etiology = causal explanation In order to study abnormal behavior, we need to understand all the possible influences. – Case study: Mark – Poor academic performance – Frustration and depressive symptoms – Motivational problems – Parental issues 2

3  There usually is no “single” cause for a psychiatric disorder. Biological explanation Psychological explanation Environmental explanation 3

4 Taken from Mash & Wolfe (2005) 4

5  Because to understand abnormal behavior, we must view it in relation to what is considered normative. 5

6 Taken from Mash & Wolfe (2005) 6

7 Genetic theories Neurobiological theories Emotional theories Behavioral and Cognitive theories Societal, Cultural, and Family theories 7

8  Gregor Mendel  Genetic Theories  Phenotype  Huntington’s Disease  Single transmission vs. multifactorial transmission 8

9 The continuum: main street America, a quirky personality, hours cleaning your apartment, medication and treatment of OCD????? The dimensional approach. 9

10  Concordance rates = if 1 twin has a disorder, what is the probability that the second twin will have the disorder?  Fraternal vs. identical twins. 10

11 Concordance Rates for Mental Illness in Twins 11 Type of illness Identical twins (%) Fraternal twins (%) Autism605 Schizophrenia4010 Depression5015 Bipolar Disorder4010

12  Are they unmodifiable?  Immediate early genes (genes that produce proteins that enable the brain to respond quickly to a changing environment)  Complex organic chemicals (class of genes that stimulate the production of certain proteins). 12

13  Neural Plasticity and the Role of Experience  The brain is organized in a hierarchical process  What about early experiences? Do they make a difference? The answer is YES! 13

14  Genetic Contributions: All traits = nature versus nurture. There are very few disorders that result from ONLY a genetic explanation. Genes and psychopathology = a small contribution! 14

15  Brain’s neurons make connecticuts at a very fast pace – birth through 24 months.  What does deprivation do to a child? The case of Genie.  Yet… brain plasticity. The cases of Brandi Binder and Antonio Battro (3 and 5 years old). 15

16  Does brain damage cause ADHD and autism? NO.  The role of neurochemistry.  1960’s = research team exposed rats to an enriched environment. What happened? Increased levels of acetylcholine. Heavier cerebral cortices. Larger cell bodies in cortical neurons. Increased neuronal connections and branching. 16

17  The work of David Snowden & his nun study.  Impoverishing experiences, e.g. Hubel & Wiesel and kittens.  What if the environment causes early stress? What does that research say? 17

18  Neurobiological Contributions: different areas of the brain regulate different functions and behaviors 18

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21  Endocrine system  The brain stem  Thalamus  Hypothalamus  Cerebellum  Forebrain  Limbic system  Hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, septum and amygdala 21

22  Caudate nucleus  Limbic system  Basal ganglia  Cerebral cortex  2 hemispheres – left and right  Corpus collosum  Occipital lobes  Parietal lobes  Temporal lobes  Frontal lobes 22

23  At what age is the brain finished developing?  Pruning – use it or lose it.  The role of myelination. 23

24  Neurobiological contributions hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurotransmitters make biochemical connections between different parts of the brain; those most commonly implicated in psychopathology include seratonin, benzodiazepine-GABA, norepinephrine, and dopamine 24

25 Mash & Wolfe (2005, p. 41) 25 NeurotransmitterNormal FunctionsImplicated role in psychopathology Benzodiazepine-GABA Reduces arousal and moderates emotional responses, e.g. anger, hostility, and aggression. Linked to feelings of anxiety and discomfort. Anxiety disorder Dopamine May act as a switch that turns on various brain circuits, allowing other neurotransmitters to inhibit or facilitate emotions or behavior. Is involved in exploratory, extroverted, and pleasure-seeking activity Schizophrenia Mood disorders ADHD Norepinephrine Facilitates or controls emergency reactions and alarm responses. Plays a role in emotional and behavioral regulation Not directly involved in specific disorders (acts to regulate or modulate behavioral tendencies) SerotoninPlays a role in information processing and motor coordination. Inhibits children’s tendency to explore their surroundings. Moderates and regulates a number of critical behaviors, e.g. eating, sleeping, and expressing anger. Regulatory problems, e.g. eating and sleeping disorders. OCD Schizophrenia and mood disorders

26  Emotional Influences: emotions tell us what to pay attention to and provide motivation for action children may have difficulties in emotion reactivity or emotion regulation temperament shapes the child’s approach to the environment and vice versa 26

27  Behavioral and Cognitive Influences: classical conditioning Operant conditioning social learning social cognition 27

28  Ecological models describe the child’s environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures Urie Bronfenbrenner  Ecological – a theory by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979)  Microsystem  Mesosystem  Exosystem  Macrosystem 28

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30  Evolution and Attachment attachment theory emphasizes the evolving child- caregiver relationship, which helps the child to regulate behavior and emotions, especially in conditions of threat or stress 30

31  The Family and Peer Context increasingly, the study of individual factors and the study of the child’s context are being seen as mutually compatible and beneficial to both theory and intervention family system theorists study children’s behavior in relation to other family members 31

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