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1 Analog-to-digital converter Prepared by: Selah al-Battah Mohammed Al-khabbaz Atiyah Alnakhli Ali Dumyati

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2 Introduction - Signals in real world; light, sound. -When you scan a picture with a scanner what the scanner is doing?? (ADC) It is taking the analog information provided by the picture (light) and converting into digital. -When you record your voice on your computer,

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3 Introduction cont'd - Since analog signals can assume any value, noise is interpreted as being part of the original signal. Digital system, on the other hand, can only understand two numbers, zero and one. Anything different from this is discarded. - Here we need a translator from analog to digital. The devices which play this job are called analog to digital converter.

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4 Analog-to-digital converter -An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. - The digital output may be using different coding schemes, such as binary and two's complement binary. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as shaft encoder, can also be considered as ADCs.

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5 Techniques of ACD -There are various techniques of A/D conversion : 1.including flash. 2.successive approximation. 3.Delta-encoded.4.Integrator. 5.delta sigma or modulator.

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6 A direct conversion ADC or flash ADC -A direct conversion is very fast, but usually has only 8 bits of resolution (256 comparators) or fewer, as it needs a large, expensive circuit. ADCs of this type have a large die size, a high input capacitance, and are prone to produce mistakes on the output (by outputting an out-of-sequence code). -example: They are often used for video or other fast signals.

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7 A successive approximation ADC This type uses a comparator to reject ranges of voltages, eventually settling on a final voltage range. The way successive approximation works is through constantly comparing the input voltage to a known reference voltage until the best approximation is achieved. At each step in this process, a binary value of the approximation is stored in a successive approximation register (SAR). the SAR uses a refernce voltage for conversion.

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8 A delta-encoded ADC - A delta-encoded ADC has an up-down counter that feeds a (DAC). The input signal and the DAC both go to a comparator. The comparator controls the counter. The circuit uses negative feedback from the comparator to adjust the counter until the DAC's output is close enough to the input signal. The number is read from the counter. counterfeedbackcounterfeedback -Delta converters have very wide ranges, and high resolution, but the conversion time is dependent on the input signal level. -Delta converters are often very good choices to read real-world signals..

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9 Integrator An integrator ADC (also called ramp-compare, dual- slope or multi-slope ADC) produces a saw-tooth signal that ramps up, then quickly falls to zero. When the ramp starts, a timer starts counting. When the ramp voltage matches the input, a comparator fires, and the timer's value is recorded. Timed ramp converters require the least number of transistors. saw-tooth signaltransistorssaw-tooth signaltransistors - The ramp time is sensitive to temperature?? There are two solutions: use a clocked counter driving a DAC and then use the comparator to preserve the counter's value, or calibrate the timed ramp. DAC

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10 A Sigma-Delta ADC - Also known as a Delta-Sigma ADC over samples the desired signal by a large factor and filters the desired signal band. Generally a smaller number of bits than required are converted using a Flash ADC after the Filter. The resulting signal, along with the error generated by the discrete levels of the Flash, is fed back and subtracted from the input to the filter. This negative feedback has the effect of noise shaping the error due to the Flash so that it does not appear in the desired signal frequencies. A digital filter follows the ADC which reduces the sampling rate, noise shapingnoise shaping

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11 Resolution -The resolution of the converter indicates the number of discrete values it can produce over the range of voltage values. It is usually expressed in (bits). For example, an ADC that encodes an analog input to one of 256 discrete values (0...255) has a resolution of eight bits, since 2^8 = 256. -Resolution can also be defined electrically, and expressed in volt. The voltage resolution of an ADC is equal to its overall voltage measurement range divided by the number of discrete values.

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12 Commercial analog-to-digital converters - These are usually integrated circuit. - Most converters sample with 6 to 24 bits of resolution, and produce less than 1 mega sample per second. It is rare to get more than 24 bits of resolution. Mega sample converters are required in digital video cameras, video capture card, and TV tuner card to convert full-speed analog video to MPEG digital video files. - Commercial converters usually have ±0.5 to ±1.5 LSB error in their output.

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13 Application to music recording -ADCs are integral to much current music reproduction technology, since much music production is done on computers; even when analog recording is used. -An ADC is still needed to create the PCM data stream that goes onto a compact disc. PCMcompact discPCMcompact disc

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14 Other applications -AD converters are used virtually everywhere where an analog signal has to be processed, stored, or transported in digital form. Fast video ADCs are used, for example, in TV tuner cards. Slow on-chip 8, 10, 12, or 16 bit ADCs are common in microcontrollers. TV tuner cardsmicrocontrollers TV tuner cardsmicrocontrollers -Very fast ADCs are needed in digital oscilloscopes, and are crucial for new applications like software defined radio digital oscilloscopessoftware defined radiodigital oscilloscopessoftware defined radio

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15 Questions?? Questions??

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