4 Clicks are common in Bantu languages, like Velaric airstream MechanismThe velaric airstream mechanism involves air trapped between the velum and the tongue. Sounds produced with the velaric airstream mechanism are known as clicks.Clicks can be voiced or voiceless, nasal or oral.Paralinguistic uses of clicks:tsk,tsk signalling impatient or exasperation Clicks are common in Bantu languages, likeZulu, but also in other languages of SouthAfrica, such as ! Xόõ and Nama.
6 How to Transcribe Clicks • bilabial • dental• postalveolar• palato-alveolar• palatal• alveolar lateralThese are combined with the corresponding velarstop [k], [g], or  to indicate absence of vocal foldvibration ([k]), presence of vocal fold vibration ([g]),and nasality ( ):voiced dental click [g |]
8 氣流機制airsteam mechanisms PulmonicGlottalic聲門Velaric軟顎DirectionSpecific name for stop consonantExamplesVocal foldsEgressive呼氣音Plosive爆發音p t kb d gVoiceless or voicedEjective緊外爆音p’ t’ k’ s’voicelessIngressive吸氣音Implosive(glott alized)閉塞音內爆音Usually voiced by the pulmonic airstreamChick倒吸氣音 (搭 嘴音)Combine with the pulmonic airstream for voiced or voiceless velar nasals
9 States of Glottis • voiced • Voiceless • Breathy voiced or murmur • Creaky voice or laryngealization