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Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation Types

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1 Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation Types

2 Pronunciatgion of a glottalic bilabial implosive 聲門吸入機制: 內爆音/縮氣音

3 Ingressive glottalic stops(implosive)
Sindhi stops

4  Clicks are common in Bantu languages, like
Velaric airstream Mechanism The velaric airstream mechanism involves air trapped between the velum and the tongue.  Sounds produced with the velaric airstream mechanism are known as clicks. Clicks can be voiced or voiceless, nasal or oral. Paralinguistic uses of clicks:tsk,tsk signalling impatient or exasperation  Clicks are common in Bantu languages, like Zulu, but also in other languages of South Africa, such as ! Xόõ and Nama.

5 How to Make a Click 軟顎吸入機制: 倒吸氣音/搭嘴音/嘖音

6 How to Transcribe Clicks • bilabial
• dental • postalveolar • palato-alveolar • palatal • alveolar lateral These are combined with the corresponding velar stop [k], [g], or [] to indicate absence of vocal fold vibration ([k]), presence of vocal fold vibration ([g]), and nasality ([] ): voiced dental click [g |]

7 Xhosa

8 氣流機制airsteam mechanisms
Pulmonic Glottalic 聲門 Velaric 軟顎 Direction Specific name for stop consonant Examples Vocal folds Egressive 呼氣音 Plosive 爆發音 p t k b d g Voiceless or voiced Ejective 緊外爆音 p’ t’ k’ s’ voiceless Ingressive 吸氣音 Implosive(glott alized)閉塞音 內爆音 Usually voiced by the pulmonic airstream Chick 倒吸氣音 (搭 嘴音) Combine with the pulmonic airstream for voiced or voiceless velar nasals

9 States of Glottis  • voiced • Voiceless • Breathy voiced or murmur
• Creaky voice or laryngealization

10 Voiceless widely or fully opened glottis

11 Breathy Voice vocal folds are pulled part + continous turbulent airflow vibration. In complete glottal closure, the arytenoid cartilages slightly apart. The symbol for this sound is

12 Creaky Voice low frequency vibration of the vocal cords. Irregular and short period of the opining of the glottis. The vibration occurs in the anterior part.

13 Creak / laryngealized / vocal fry
Types of Phonation Voiceless whisper voiced Breathy /murmur Creak / laryngealized / vocal fry


15 Gujarati has breathy voice vowels EX: Murmured vowels in Gujarati


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