5 Protecting all waters, surface and ground waters Covering all impacts on waters. Good quality (‘good status’) to be achieved, as a rule, by 2015 Water quality defined in terms of biology, chemistry and morphology Water Framework Directive: key elements
7 Water management at river basin level Definition of river basin management plans, including programmes of measures Cost Recovery and Equitable Charging Public Participation Attention paid to socio-economic impacts through a process of duly justified exemptions
8 Water Framework Directive: Programmes of measures Basic measures (compulsory measures that have to be implemented in application of existing directives), notably drinking water, nitrates, habitat directives Supplementary measures, as economic or fiscal instruments, legislative instruments, codes of good practices, voluntary approaches, research,… Selection of the supplementary measures on the basis of cost-effectiveness analyses
9 Formal transposition into national lawDec 2003 Environmental analysis, economic analysisDec 2004 Monitoring programmes operationalDec 2006 Public participation at the latestDec 2006 Draft river basin management plansDec 2008 Final river basin management plansDec 2009 Implementation, assessment, adjustment2015 and further Implementation: A continuous and transparent process
10 Water Framework Directive and Agriculture River basin analyses: risk analyses show that the main pressures are the pressures linked to agriculture and hydro-morphology for the 25 MS For the 10 new MS, there are additional industrial and domestic pollutions, as the associated EU legislation is being implemented with delay. It is a general statement. It is also obvious that the balance between the different pressures largely varies at regional level.
11 Water Framework Directive and Agriculture Pressures coming form agriculture Widespread problem: diffuse pollutions by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) resulting in river, lake and sea eutrophication Regional problems: contamination by pesticides, soil erosion, irrigation and over-abstractions, desiccation of wetlands, drainage consequences
12 Water Framework Directive and Agriculture Some agricultural activities could be highly concerned by the WFD implementation. In some regions, going beyond “good practices” and “slight” adaptations will be needed. Examples: production extensification, conversion to organic farming, changes in soil coverage,… Water pricing: the WFD asks for « incitative pricing » and the recovery of the costs of water services.
13 Water Framework Directive and Agriculture In the light of the strong interactions between the water and agriculture policies, a strategic steering group was put into place in 2005, involving water and agriculture experts (Member States, DG AGRI and ENV, parties concerned). The group firstly assessed the contribution of the CAP reform to the WFD implementation.
14 Water Framework Directive and CAP (1rst pillar) In theory, support decoupling is supposed to reduce incentives to intensification. But effects are still uncertain and will vary across sectors and regions. Cross-Compliance is going to help the WFD implementation as two directives (nitrates and groundwater) directly address water issues. Some MS have set up interesting Good Agro- Environmental Conditions (GAEC) for water issues. However, effects expected from Cross-Compliance are limited. There is a large variability in the rigour of implementation by MS. In addition, Cross-Compliance does not cover all WFD aspects.
15 Water Framework Directive and CAP (2nd pillar) Rural development programmes are high potential tools for the WFD (practices since 1992, good acceptance by farmers, measures adapted to local situations, lots of successful experiences,…) BUT, budgets are insufficient in comparison to potential needs (partial evaluations and qualitative interpretations).
16 Solutions ? Costs (and benefits) of the WFD in the agricultural sector are partially assessed. They depend on the measures selected and on the level of use of exemptions for socio-economic reasons. Two issues need to be address: “Specific” effectiveness of the measures (cost- effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses) Distribution of charges and benefits between the different actors – link with the question of the financial transfers
17 WFD and CAP: what options for the future? Statu quo: optimisation of existing tools and budgets (looking for priorities and synergies in the RDP, rigour in the implementation of the existing cross-compliance standards). This is already a real challenge! Reinforcing the second pillar in a logic of public supports oriented to production of public goods
18 WFD and CAP: what options for the future? Reinforcing Cross-Compliance requirements to cover all WFD aspects, with two issues at stake: Is it cost-effective ? (evaluation of the existing process will help in this respect) If yes, what is the good option (Annex 3 or GAEC) ? Identifying other instruments and other sources of funding (reminder: WFD asks for « incitative » water prices and recovery of the costs of the water services)
19 Next activities planned at EU level Strategic steering group on WFD and agriculture Exchange of information on the future programmes of measures regarding quantitative and qualitative agricultural pressures on waters Exchange of information and views about prospective issues: conditions to develop new farming systems - interaction of new policy development with water management (bio fuels) Exchanges of information on the rural development programmes Setting up of a catalogue of all possible measures
20 Next activities planned at EU level Working group on environmental objectives and exemptions A study launched by the Commission is undertaking a cost-benefit analysis on the implementation of the WFD. This study will give particular attention to the relationship between the WFD and agriculture.