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CHM 112 M. Prushan Chapter 13 Equilibrium

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Equilibrium is a state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by. Chemical equilibrium is achieved when: the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant Physical equilibrium H 2 O (l) Chemical equilibrium N2O4 (g)N2O4 (g) H 2 O (g) 2NO 2 (g)

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CHM 112 M. Prushan The point at which the rate of decomposition: N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) equals the rate of dimerization: 2NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g). is dynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium is dynamic because the reaction has not stopped: the opposing rates are equal. Consider frozen N 2 O 4 : only white solid is present. On the microscopic level, only N 2 O 4 molecules are present. The Concept of Equilibrium

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CHM 112 M. Prushan

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CHM 112 M. Prushan N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) Start with NO 2 Start with N 2 O 4 Start with NO 2 & N 2 O 4 equilibrium

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CHM 112 M. Prushan constant

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CHM 112 M. Prushan N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) = 4.63 x 10 -3 K = [NO 2 ] 2 [N 2 O 4 ] aA + bB cC + dD K = [C] c [D] d [A] a [B] b Law of Mass Action K >> 1 K << 1 Lie to the rightFavor products Lie to the leftFavor reactants Equilibrium Will

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Homogenous equilibrium applies to reactions in which all reacting species are in the same phase. N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) K c = [NO 2 ] 2 [N 2 O 4 ] K p = NO 2 P2P2 N2O4N2O4 P In most cases K c K p aA (g) + bB (g) cC (g) + dD (g) K p = K c (RT) n n = moles of gaseous products – moles of gaseous reactants = (c + d) – (a + b)

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Homogeneous Equilibrium CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K c = ‘ [CH 3 COO - ][H 3 O + ] [CH 3 COOH][H 2 O] [H 2 O] = constant K c = [CH 3 COO - ][H 3 O + ] [CH 3 COOH] =K c [H 2 O] ‘ General practice not to include units for the equilibrium constant.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan The equilibrium concentrations for the reaction between carbon monoxide and molecular chlorine to form COCl 2 (g) at 74 0 C are [CO] = 0.012 M, [Cl 2 ] = 0.054 M, and [COCl 2 ] = 0.14 M. Calculate the equilibrium constants K c and K p. CO (g) + Cl 2 (g) COCl 2 (g) Kc =Kc = [COCl 2 ] [CO][Cl 2 ] = 0.14 0.012 x 0.054 = 220 K p = K c (RT) n n = 1 – 2 = -1 R = 0.0821T = 273 + 74 = 347 K K p = 220 x (0.0821 x 347) -1 = 7.7

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CHM 112 M. Prushan The equilibrium constant K p for the reaction is 158 at 1000K. What is the equilibrium pressure of O 2 if the P NO = 0.400 atm and P NO = 0.270 atm? 2 2NO 2 (g) 2NO (g) + O 2 (g) K p = 2 P NO P O 2 P NO 2 2 POPO 2 = K p P NO 2 2 2 POPO 2 = 158 x (0.400) 2 /(0.270) 2 = 347 atm

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Heterogenous equilibrium applies to reactions in which reactants and products are in different phases. CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) K c = ‘ [CaO][CO 2 ] [CaCO 3 ] [CaCO 3 ] = constant [CaO] = constant K c = [CO 2 ] = K c x ‘ [CaCO 3 ] [CaO] K p = P CO 2 The concentration of solids and pure liquids are not included in the expression for the equilibrium constant.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan P CO 2 = K p CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) P CO 2 does not depend on the amount of CaCO 3 or CaO

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Consider the following equilibrium at 295 K: The partial pressure of each gas is 0.265 atm. Calculate K p and K c for the reaction? NH 4 HS (s) NH 3 (g) + H 2 S (g) K p = P NH 3 H2SH2S P= 0.265 x 0.265 = 0.702 K p = K c (RT) n K c = K p (RT) - n n = 2 – 0 = 2 T = 295 K K c = 0.702 x (0.0821 x 295) -2 = 1.20 x 10 -3

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CHM 112 M. Prushan A + B C + D C + D E + F A + B E + F K c = ‘ [C][D] [A][B] K c = ‘ ‘ [E][F] [C][D] [E][F] [A][B] K c = KcKc ‘ KcKc ‘‘ KcKc KcKc ‘‘ KcKc ‘ x If a reaction can be expressed as the sum of two or more reactions, the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction is given by the product of the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan N 2 O 4 (g) 2NO 2 (g) = 4.63 x 10 -3 K = [NO 2 ] 2 [N 2 O 4 ] 2NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) K = [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2 ‘ = 1 K = 216 When the equation for a reversible reaction is written in the opposite direction, the equilibrium constant becomes the reciprocal of the original equilibrium constant.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Writing Equilibrium Constant Expressions The concentrations of the reacting species in the condensed phase are expressed in M. In the gaseous phase, the concentrations can be expressed in M or in atm. The concentrations of pure solids, pure liquids and solvents do not appear in the equilibrium constant expressions. The equilibrium constant is a dimensionless quantity. In quoting a value for the equilibrium constant, you must specify the balanced equation and the temperature. If a reaction can be expressed as a sum of two or more reactions, the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction is given by the product of the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Chemical Kinetics and Chemical Equilibrium A + 2B AB 2 kfkf krkr rate f = k f [A][B] 2 rate r = k r [AB 2 ] Equilibrium rate f = rate r k f [A][B] 2 = k r [AB 2 ] kfkf krkr [AB 2 ] [A][B] 2 =K c =

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CHM 112 M. Prushan The reaction quotient (Q c ) is calculated by substituting the initial concentrations of the reactants and products into the equilibrium constant (K c ) expression. IF Q c < K c system proceeds from left to right to reach equilibrium Q c = K c the system is at equilibrium Q c > K c system proceeds from right to left to reach equilibrium

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations 1.Express the equilibrium concentrations of all species in terms of the initial concentrations and a single unknown x, which represents the change in concentration. 2.Write the equilibrium constant expression in terms of the equilibrium concentrations. Knowing the value of the equilibrium constant, solve for x. 3.Having solved for x, calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all species.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan At 1280 0 C the equilibrium constant (K c ) for the reaction Is 1.1 x 10 -3. If the initial concentrations are [Br 2 ] = 0.063 M and [Br] = 0.012 M, calculate the concentrations of these species at equilibrium. Br 2 (g) 2Br (g) Let x be the change in concentration of Br 2 Initial (M) Change (M) Equilibrium (M) 0.0630.012 -x-x+2x 0.063 - x0.012 + 2x [Br] 2 [Br 2 ] K c = (0.012 + 2x) 2 0.063 - x = 1.1 x 10 -3 Solve for x

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CHM 112 M. Prushan K c = (0.012 + 2x) 2 0.063 - x = 1.1 x 10 -3 4x 2 + 0.048x + 0.000144 = 0.0000693 – 0.0011x 4x 2 + 0.0491x + 0.0000747 = 0 ax 2 + bx + c =0 -b ± b 2 – 4ac 2a2a x = Br 2 (g) 2Br (g) Initial (M) Change (M) Equilibrium (M) 0.0630.012 -x-x+2x 0.063 - x0.012 + 2x x = -0.00178x = -0.0105 At equilibrium, [Br] = 0.012 + 2x = -0.009 Mor 0.00844 M At equilibrium, [Br 2 ] = 0.062 – x = 0.0648 M

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CHM 112 M. Prushan If an external stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system adjusts in such a way that the stress is partially offset as the system reaches a new equilibrium position. Le Châtelier’s Principle Changes in Concentration N 2 (g) + H 2 (g) NH 3 (g) Add NH 3 Equilibrium shifts left to offset stress

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Le Châtelier’s Principle Changes in Concentration continued ChangeShifts the Equilibrium Increase concentration of product(s)left Decrease concentration of product(s)right Decrease concentration of reactant(s) Increase concentration of reactant(s)right left aA + bB cC + dD Add Remove

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Le Châtelier’s Principle Changes in Volume and Pressure A (g) + B (g) C (g) ChangeShifts the Equilibrium Increase pressureSide with fewest moles of gas Decrease pressureSide with most moles of gas Decrease volume Increase volumeSide with most moles of gas Side with fewest moles of gas

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Le Châtelier’s Principle Changes in Temperature ChangeExothermic Rx Increase temperatureK decreases Decrease temperatureK increases Endothermic Rx K increases K decreases Adding a Catalyst does not change K does not shift the position of an equilibrium system system will reach equilibrium sooner

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CHM 112 M. Prushan uncatalyzedcatalyzed Catalyst lowers E a for both forward and reverse reactions. Catalyst does not change equilibrium constant or shift equilibrium.

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CHM 112 M. Prushan Le Châtelier’s Principle ChangeShift Equilibrium Change Equilibrium Constant Concentrationyesno Pressureyesno Volumeyesno Temperatureyes Catalystno

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