3 PART III The Core of Macroeconomic Theory The level of GDP, the overall price level, and the level of employment—three chief concerns of macroeconomists—are influenced by events in three broadly defined “markets”:Goods-and-services marketFinancial (money) marketLabor market
4 PART III The Core of Macroeconomic Theory FIGURE III.1 The Core of Macroeconomic TheoryWe build up the macroeconomy slowly. In Chapters 8 and 9, we examine the market for goods and services. In Chapters 10 and 11, we examine the money market. Then in Chapter 12, we bring the two markets together, in so doing explaining the links between aggregate output (Y) and the interest rate (r), and derive the aggregate demand curve. In Chapter 13, we introduce the aggregate supply curve and determine the price level (P). We then explain in Chapter 14 how the labor market fits into the macroeconomic picture.
6 8 Aggregate Expenditure and Equilibrium Output PART III THE CORE OF MACROECONOMIC THEORY8CHAPTER OUTLINEThe Keynesian Theory of ConsumptionOther Determinants of ConsumptionPlanned Investment (I)The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) The Saving/Investment Approach to EquilibriumAdjustment to EquilibriumThe Multiplier The Multiplier EquationThe Size of the Multiplier in the Real WorldLooking Ahead
7 Aggregate Expenditure and Equilibrium Output aggregate output The total quantity of goods and services produced (or supplied) in an economy in a given period.aggregate income The total income received by all factors of production in a given period.aggregate output (income) (Y) A combined term used to remind you of the exact equality between aggregate output and aggregate income.In any given period, there is an exact equality between aggregate output (production) andaggregate income. You should be reminded of this fact whenever you encounter the combinedterm aggregate output (income) (Y).
8 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption consumption function The relationship betweenconsumption and income. FIGURE 8.1 A Consumption Function for a HouseholdA consumption function for an individual household shows the level of consumption at each level of household income.
9 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption With a straight line consumption curve, we can use the following equation to describe the curve:C = a + bY FIGURE 8.2 An Aggregate Consumption FunctionThe aggregate consumption function shows the level of aggregate consumption at each level of aggregate income.The upward slope indicates that higher levels of income lead to higher levels of consumption spending.
10 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption marginal propensity to consume (MPC) Thatfraction of a change in income that is consumed, or spent.aggregate saving (S) The part of aggregate income that is not consumed.S ≡ Y – C
11 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption identity Something that is always true.marginal propensity to save (MPS) That fraction of a change in income that is saved.MPC + MPS ≡ 1Because the MPC and the MPS are important concepts, it may help to review their definitions.The marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is the fraction of an increase in income that isconsumed (or the fraction of a decrease in income that comes out of consumption). The marginalpropensity to save (MPS) is the fraction of an increase in income that is saved (or the fractionof a decrease in income that comes out of saving).
12 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption FIGURE 8.3 The Aggregate Consumption Function Derived from the Equation C = YIn this simple consumption function, consumption is 100 at an income of zero.As income rises, so does consumption. For every 100 increase in income, consumption rises by 75. The slope of the line is .75.AGGREGATE INCOME, Y (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)AGGREGATE CONSUMPTION, C (BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)100801601752002504006005508007001,000850
13 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption FIGURE 8.4 Deriving the Saving Function from the Consumption Function in Figure 8.3Because S ≡ Y – C, it is easy to derive the saving function from the consumption function. A 45° line drawn from the origin can be used as a convenient tool to compare consumption and income graphically.At Y = 200, consumption is 250. The 45° line shows us that consumption is larger than income by 50. Thus, S ≡ Y – C = -50.At Y = 800, consumption is less than income by 100. Thus, S = 100 when Y = 800.Y-C=SAGGREGATE INCOME (Billions of Dollars)AGGREGATE CONSUMPTION (Billions of Dollars)AGGREGATE SAVING (Billions of Dollars)100-10080160-80175-75200250-50400600550508007001,000850150
14 The Keynesian Theory of Consumption Other Determinants of ConsumptionThe assumption that consumption depends only on income is obviously a simplification. In practice, the decisions of households on how much to consume in a given period are also affected by their wealth, by the interest rate, and by their expectations of the future. Households with higher wealth are likely to spend more, other things being equal, than households with less wealth.
15 Planned Investment (I) FIGURE 8.5 The Planned Investment FunctionFor the time being, we will assume that planned investment is fixed.It does not change when income changes, so its graph is a horizontal line.
16 Planned Investment (I) planned investment (I) Those additions to capital stock and inventory that are planned by firms.actual investment The actual amount of investment that takes place; it includes items such as unplanned changes in inventories.
17 Behavioral Biases in Saving Behavior Planned Investment (I)Behavioral Biases in Saving BehaviorEconomists have generally assumed that people make their saving decisions rationally, just as they make other decisions about choices in consumption and the labor market. Saving decisions involve thinking about trade-offs between present and future consumption. Recent work in behavioral economics has highlighted the role of psychological biases in saving behavior and has demonstrated that seemingly small changes in the way saving programs are designed can result in big behavioral changes.
18 The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) equilibrium Occurs when there is no tendency for change. In the macroeconomic goods market, equilibrium occurs when planned aggregate expenditure is equal to aggregate output.planned aggregate expenditure (AE) The total amount the economy plans to spend in a given period. Equal to consumption plus planned investment: AE ≡ C + I.Y > C + Iaggregate output > planned aggregate expenditureC + I > Y planned aggregate expenditure > aggregate output
19 The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) TABLE 8.1 Deriving the Planned Aggregate Expenditure Schedule and Finding Equilibrium The Figures in Column 2 Are Based on the Equation C = Y.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)Aggregate Output (Income) (Y)Aggregate Consumption (C)Planned Investment (I)Planned Aggregate Expenditure (AE) C + IUnplanned Inventory Change Y - (C + I)Equilibrium? (Y = AE?)10017525200- 100No250275- 75400425- 25500475Yes600550575+ 25800700725+ 751,000850875+ 125
20 The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) FIGURE 8.6 Equilibrium Aggregate OutputEquilibrium occurs when planned aggregate expenditure and aggregate output are equal.Planned aggregate expenditure is the sum of consumption spending and planned investment spending.
21 The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) The Saving/Investment Approach to EquilibriumBecause aggregate income must either be saved or spent, by definition, Y ≡ C + S, which is an identity. The equilibrium condition is Y = C + I, but this is not an identity because it does not hold when we are out of equilibrium. By substituting C + S for Y in the equilibrium condition, we can write:C + S = C + IBecause we can subtract C from both sides of this equation, we are left with:S = IThus, only when planned investment equals saving will there be equilibrium.
22 The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) The Saving/Investment Approach to Equilibrium FIGURE 8.7 The S = IApproach to EquilibriumAggregate output is equal to planned aggregate expenditure only when saving equals planned investment (S = I).Saving and planned investment are equal at Y = 500.
23 The Determination of Equilibrium Output (Income) Adjustment to EquilibriumThe adjustment process will continue as long as output (income) is below planned aggregate expenditure. If firms react to unplanned inventory reductions by increasing output, an economy withplanned spending greater than output will adjust to equilibrium, with Y higher than before. If planned spending is less than output, there will be unplanned increases in inventories. In this case, firms will respond by reducing output. As output falls, income falls, consumption falls, and so on, until equilibrium is restored, with Y lower than before.
24 The Multipliermultiplier The ratio of the change in the equilibrium level of output to a change in some exogenous variable.exogenous variable A variable that is assumed not to depend on the state of the economy—that is, it does not change when the economy changes.
25 The Multiplier FIGURE 8.8 The Multiplier as Seen in the Planned Aggregate Expenditure DiagramAt point A, the economy is in equilibrium at Y = 500.When I increases by 25, planned aggregate expenditure is initially greater than aggregate output. As output rises in response, additional consumption is generated, pushing equilibrium output up by a multiple of the initial increase in I.The new equilibrium is found at point B, where Y = 600. Equilibrium output has increased by 100 ( ), or four times the amount of the increase in planned investment.
26 The Multiplier The Multiplier Equation The marginal propensity to save may be expressed as:Because DS must be equal to DI for equilibrium to be restored, we can substitute DI for DS and solve:therefore,, or
27 The Paradox of Thrift The Multiplier The Multiplier Equation An increase in planned saving from S0 to S1 causes equilibrium output to decrease from 500 to 300. The decreased consumption that accompanies increased saving leads to a contraction of the economy and to a reduction of income. But at the new equilibrium, saving is the same as it was at the initial equilibrium. Increased efforts to save have caused a drop in income but no overall change in saving.
28 The Multiplier The Size of the Multiplier in the Real World In considering the size of the multiplier, it is important to realize that the multiplier we derived in this chapter is based on a very simplified picture of the economy.In reality the size of the multiplier is about That is, a sustained increase in exogenous spending of $10 billion into the U.S. economy can be expected to raise real GDP over time by about $14 billion.
29 REVIEW TERMS AND CONCEPTS actual investmentaggregate incomeaggregate outputaggregate output (income) (Y)aggregate saving (S)consumption functionequilibriumexogenous variableIdentitymarginal propensity to consume (MPC)marginal propensity to save (MPS)multiplierplanned aggregate expenditure (AE)planned investment (I)1. S ≡ Y − C2.3. MPC + MPS ≡ 14. AE ≡ C + I5. Equilibrium condition: Y = AE or Y = C + I6. Saving/investment approach to equilibrium: S = I7.