Review ◦ Ethos ◦ Pathos ◦ Logos Remember: A good persuasive essay uses these techniques! Logos/Rational/Logical: Builds a well-reasoned argument based on evidence, such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony Conforms to the basic principles of argument, including accurate information, logical development and convincing evidence (proof). References to studies, statistics, case studies
Review Ethos Pathos Logos Pathos/ Emotional: Attempts to stir up the audience's feelings often by using loaded words that convey strong connections Based on appeals to anger, fear, frustration, contentment, desires, and the like. Stories, inspirational quotes, vivid language
Review Ethos Pathos Logos Ethos/Ethical: Linked to the audience's perception of the trustworthiness and credibility of the speaker or writer. Impression of the speaker as someone with good sense and good will Cites credible sources (people/places that others trust)
Review Rhetorical Question Allusion Parallelism Asking questions for effect, not to get answers Example: “How can we stand by idly when our freedoms are being taken away?”
Brainstorming Topic: Should schools follow the traditional calendar or be year round? Stance:Specific Example Reason: Year round school has additional cost 1.The additional cost of air conditioning, utilities, salaries, etc. 2.Arizona school cost raised Reason:1. 2. Reason:1. 2. Reason:1. 2. Reason:1. 2. *Stance: Pick your side! EXAMPLE
Brainstorming Topic and StanceAdditional Cost Air conditioning, utilities, etc. School in Arizona raised $157K when switched to year round Main Reason #2Fact or Example Main Reason #3Fact or Example 1 st Body Paragraph2 nd Body Paragraph 3 rd Body Paragraph Look at your chart on slide 3: Can any of the reasons you give be categorized into one? * Pick your 3 strongest arguments!
Developing a Thesis Statement Topic: Stance: 3 Main Reasons: Exact Words From the Prompt Writer’s answers/position/ choice 3 words / short phrases that tell the reader how my evidence will be organized in the body paragraphs
Outline Thesis: 1st reason: Examples/Facts/Effects: 2 nd reason: Examples/Facts/Effects: 3 rd reason: Examples/Facts/Effects: Eliminate any examples that doesn’t connect 100% to your thesis
Body Paragraphs Start each body paragraph with a topic sentence. Each paragraph should give a different reason for the reader to agree with your position Provide evidence to support your opinions: facts, statistics, examples, anecdotes, interview quotations, or expert opinions. Conclusion/Warrant – how does the information presented supports the thesis
1 st Paragraph Example : Reason Additional Cost Like any other facility, keeping a school open requires a great deal of money. When a school changes to a year-round schedule, the costs skyrocket. Keeping school open in the middle of summer requires air conditioning, and that adds significantly to the school’s expenses. The usual utility bills grow because of the additional open-school time. Finally, teachers must be paid for all the weeks they are working. With all these factors, the cost of keeping schools open becomes immensely high. For example, a high school in Arizona had a cost increase of $157,000 when they switched to year-round schooling. Some schools may not be able to handle such increases, and other schools that can handle these expenses could be doing better things with the money. Is year-round school really where the money should go? Emotional Rhetorical Question
The Remainder of the Introduction Paragraph Give background information about the situation Include a thesis statement that gives your opinion (Look on slide 8)
Introduction Paragraph Example The final bell rings. It’s the last day of school, and summer has finally come! Students don’t have to think about school for at least another 2 1/2 months. That is the way it should always be. Year-round schooling has negative effects on students and their education, it adds to costs, and it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation. Schools should continue using the traditional calendar to not negatively affect students, staff, or districts.
Conclusion Paragraph a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. (The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement.) a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in a persuasive paper.)
Things you can include in your Conclusion Paragraph Use a quotation. Evoke a vivid image through a metaphor or imagery. (Imagery and metaphors gain you bonus points) End with a warning. Suggest results or consequences. Include a CLINCHER – your last opportunity to connect with the audience. Hint* Emotion is great way to connect to your audience. Complete the anecdote or scenario that you used to introduce you speech.
Conclusion Paragraph Example It is evident that year-round schooling is not the best option for the school calendar. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the traditional school year. With its negative effects on education, skyrocket costs and its disruption of summer vacation, the suggestion is a complete waste of time. Why change something that works so well? The final bell rings. Let’s make sure this bell means that the “real” summer vacation has come.