Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Objective 4: Water, Solutions and pH. Structure (& Properties) of Water I. Polar Vs. Nonpolar a. Water is a polar molecule. It has dipoles (meaning."— Presentation transcript:
Structure (& Properties) of Water I. Polar Vs. Nonpolar a. Water is a polar molecule. It has dipoles (meaning a positive end and a negative end). Look at the figure below. ( Think: Mickey mouse ears !!)
Polar Vs Nonpolar b.Because of its polar nature, water can dissolve any other polar molecule or any IONIC compound. Ex. NaCl- salt ; Na is (+) and Cl (-) The oxygen (-) from water will bond with Na(+), The hydrogen (+) will bond with the Cl (-).
Polar Vs. Nonpolar c. Like dissolves like - polar dissolves polar; nonpolar dissolves nonpolar. Ex. (Polar) Water can clean paintbrushes that were used to paint with watercolors, BUT (Nonpolar) gasoline or mineral spirits must be used to clean paintbrushes that have been used with oil paints. Water cannot clean oil based paints!
Solubility I.A solution contains 2 parts: a.solvent - does the dissolving (or the one in the greater amount) ex. Water b.solute - gets dissolved (or the one in the lesser amount) ex. Salt II. Solubility- the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount solvent at a given temperature.
Factors Affecting Solubility 3 factors affect how fast a solute will dissolve : 1. Surface area (particle size)- that larger the surface area the faster it will dissolve Ex. Sugar cube vs. crushed sugar (crushed dissolves faster due to the increased surface area) Vs 2.Stirring and shaking (gets those particles moving)
3.Temperature - increasing the temperature allows more particles of a liquid or solid solute to dissolve. (However, increasing temperature has the opposite effect on a gas) –Pressure has little effect on solids in liquids, but greatly affects gases because gases are compressible.
This is a solubility graph. Notice as temperature increases, the solubility of the different solutes also increase. Except for NH 3 because it is a gas. The solubility of a gas decreases as temperature increases. That is why cokes go “flat” really quickly when they are hot. The CO 2 escapes!
Acids and Bases 1.acids contain a hydrogen ion (H +1 ) – have a sour taste ex. HNO 3 - nitric acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 – Vinegar (acid) H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid HCl--- hydrochloric acid 2.On the pH scale, acids range from 0-6; 0 is the strongest, 6 is weakest
3.Bases contain the hydroxide ion (OH -1 ) ---have a bitter taste. Ex: NaOH sodium hydroxide, soap, and shampoo are bases 4. On the pH scale, bases range from 8-14; 8 being the weakest, 14 being the strongest.
5. As you can see, the closer you are to 7, the weaker the acid or base because 7 is neutral. Ex. Pure water has a pH of 7