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Focus On Grammar Book 2, 5 th edition Chapter 8: Modals etc.

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Presentation on theme: "Focus On Grammar Book 2, 5 th edition Chapter 8: Modals etc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus On Grammar Book 2, 5 th edition Chapter 8: Modals etc.

2 8.1 – Overview Can, could Will, would Should May, might, must Have to* (used to*) Be able/supposed/permitted/allowed to

3 8.2 – Negatives with Modals NOT goes after the FIRST HELPING VERB – Cannot is one word – Will not  won’t – Some have no contractions HAVE TO thinks it is a REAL verb

4 8.2 – Negatives with Modals Examples NOT goes after the FIRST HELPING VERB – Ali should study every day. – Ana will eat rice tomorrow. – Latifa can write essays. – Shem is supposed to bring food for the class. HAVE TO (& used to) thinks it is a REAL verb – Edrissa has to find a boyfriend. – Gyeongmin and Jackson used to play soccer.

5 8.3 Questions (SUBJECT) EASY! Just change the subject to WHO or WHAT – Don’t forget the 92.8% rule, and the 7.2% rule, but this rarely applies to modals. – Ali should study every day. – Ana will eat rice tomorrow. – Latifa can write essays. – Shem is supposed to bring food for the class. HAVE TO (& used to) thinks it is a REAL verb – Edrissa and Celine have to find boyfriends. – Gyeongmin and Jackson used to play soccer.

6 8.3 Questions (Yes/No) Move the FIRST HELPING VERB in front of the subject. – Ali should study every day. – Ana will eat rice tomorrow. – Latifa can write essays. – Shem is supposed to bring food for the class. HAVE TO (& used to) thinks it is a REAL verb – Edrissa has to find a boyfriend. – Gyeongmin and Jackson used to play soccer.

7 8.3 Questions (Others) Make a Yes/No question, then change the answer to a question word and move it to the front of the sentence – Ali should study every day. – Ana will eat rice tomorrow. – Latifa can write essays on the bus. – Shem is supposed to bring food for the class. HAVE TO (& used to) thinks it is a REAL verb – Edrissa has to find a boyfriend because she is lonely. – Gyeongmin and Jackson used to play soccer.

8 8.4 - Requirements Must – is the strongest Have to – ok Have got to – most informal There is no past tense, negative, or question form of must or have got to – Only use had to for past – Only use have to for negatives and questions. – Remember, have to thinks it’s a REAL verb. (used to also)

9 8.5 – Must & Supposed To Must is very official sounding (authority). Be Supposed to is better for most uses.

10 8.6 – can, could, may, BE able/permitted/allowed to Ability – Can, Be able to – Could (past) Permission – Can, May, Be permitted/allowed to, – Could (past) Possibility – ?can?, May, Could

11 8.7 – Advice with Should & Had Better Both are weaker than must or have (got) to NOT is after better (not had) Had better is not used for questions (use should)

12 8.8 Negatives of Modals Must and Have To are pretty much the same Must Not and Don’t Have To are absolutely different. – You must study. = You have to study. – You must not eat the cookies. ≠ You don’t have to eat the cookies.

13 8.9 - Conclusions MUST for logical conclusions (+90% sure) MUST NOT for negative conclusions (+90%)

14 8.10 – Future: Will & may/might WILL for future predictions (+90% sure) – (see 2.6  2.9 for Will and Be going to – Will not = won’t MAY & MIGHT for about 50% sure) – Be careful of MAYBE – He may have a cold. (modal) – He may be sick. (modal) – Maybe he is sick. (adverb)

15 8.11 - Politeness If you want to be polite, use PLEASE a lot. – Americans never use it, but love to hear it. Permission: Could  May  Can Request someone else to do something: Could  Would  Can  Will Ask or Express Desire: Would you like? I’d like Preference: Would you rather? I’d rather Suggestion: Why don’t you/we/they – (this is not a real question; it’s a suggestion)


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