3 ImperialismA policy where stronger nations dominate the political, economic, or cultural life of weaker nations.A new wave began in the 1800s. Original wave started back in the 1400s.Born out of the new industrial society of the 1800s. Countries were richer and more powerful.
6 Economic Interests The Industrial Revolution Industrialized countries needed natural resourcesEx: rubber, petroleum, manganese for steel, palm oil for machineryAlso wanted new markets to sell factory goods toColonies were valuable outlets for overpopulation in home countries
8 Political/Military Interests IN’s needed naval bases around the worldSeized islands and harborsCompetition/maintaining balance of powerEmpire = prestige and greatnessEx: when France got colonies in West Africa, GB and Germany did too to prevent France from becoming too powerful
9 Humanitarian/Religious Goals Many Westerners believed they had a moral duty to spread their “superior” way of lifeWestern technology, law, medicine, educationAlso felt they needed to “Christianize” the “barbarians” in other parts of the world.It was very ethnocentric…but…many well-meaning missionaries and doctors accompanied the imperialistsTwo arguments: western advances did benefit natives; natives were denied their culture
10 Social DarwinismImperialism was based on feelings of racial superiority; this theory justified colonies.Racism: the belief that one race is superior to othersSocial Darwinists applied Charles Darwin’s ideas about natural selection and survival of the fittest to human societies.Imperialism was nature’s way of improving the human race.
11 What made imperialism possible? Weakness of conquered areasAfrica weak because of slave tradeLack of weapons/technologyWestern strengths and advantagesStrong economies and governmentsPowerful armies and naviesSuperior technologySteam-powered ships, Maxim machine gun (1889), repeating rifles, the telegraph, quinine
12 Meeting in Berlin Berlin Conference, 1884 A gathering of European powers held in Berlin.This was a means of avoiding war between the powers.It established ground rules for staking claims in Africa.
13 Forms of Imperialism Colony – direct control, most intrusive Protectorate – local rulers left in place, but still under control of European advisorsSphere of influence – exclusive investment or trading privilegesEconomic Imperialism – most politically independent, but ldc’s indirectly controlled by large businesses
16 Impacts Positive: medical advances, hospitals, schools Life expectancy and literacy rates increasedNegative: Africans lost control of land and their independenceForced to mine or plant cotton and other cash crops instead of their own food cropsFamineLoss of traditional culture