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A Nation of Immigrants.

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Presentation on theme: "A Nation of Immigrants."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Nation of Immigrants

2 EQ What is the difference between Old and New Immigrants?
What is the distinction between old and new aside from the date of arrival? What are the push/pull factors involved in immigration? Which analogy is better? The Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl?

3 Old Immigrants “Old” Immigrants
immigrants who came to America before 1880 Old Immigrants came mostly from northern and western Europe: Great Britain Ireland Germany Holland France Scandinavia


5 Old Immigrants Most Americans welcomed Old Immigrants for following reasons: needed as workers for factories, mines, railroads became farmers and settlers for western lands served in all branches of U.S. military EX: Irish Brigade in the Civil War

6 Old Immigrants Northern Europe: Great Britain, Ireland and Germany
Many spoke the language Most were Christians, especially Protestants Many came looking for cheap land that was available in the west Homestead Act encouraged the settlement of immigrants The building of railroads No laws limiting immigration

7 Resistance to Immigration
Know Nothing Party ( ) opposed immigration for following reasons: considered immigrants cheap source of labor who took American jobs believed immigrants would not assimilate into American culture hated Catholics

8 Anti-Catholicism


10 New Immigrants

11 New Immigrants Southern and Eastern: Poland, Greece, Austria and Russia Very poor Spoke little or NO English Many Jews included Faced tremendous hardships in Europe Faced resistance for Native born Americans New Immigration laws restricting Immigration

12 New Immigrants many Americans opposed New Immigrants for following reasons: cheap western land no longer available therefore forced to live in cities created ethnic ghettos and did not assimilate into American culture competed against Americans for factory jobs considered mentally inferior

13 Why They Came Push Factors Political Freedom. Religious Freedom.
Escape horrible conditions of poverty. The potato famine in Ireland during the 1840’s

14 Why They Came Famine caused deaths of thousands.
Job opportunities were extremely limited. Russian Jews fled violent government, which sponsored against them Expansion of railroads of Europe led to demise of traditional jobs and of farms

15 Resistance to Immigration
The Rise of Nativism Nativist was very hostile towards immigrants Nativist believed that they were superior to other races and religions Many nativist were known as the Know-Nothings. Wanted stricter laws keeping immigrants out of the country Believed immigrants lowered the standard of living. Believed immigrants took many job opportunities away from Americans

16 Know-Nothing Party

17 Nativism

18 Establishing A New Life
The Process of Becoming Americanized Immigrants faced great hardships on their initial trip to America Americanized Learning to act, speak, and live like other Americans; assimilation

19 Establishing A New Life
Initial Hardships Extremely poor City life was quite difficult to adjust too Speaking the language was difficult Customs and culture were different Disgusting places to live Faced hostility from Native born individuals

20 Establishing A New Life
Ethnic Ghettos This is where the same nationality, live together in the same neighborhood They live together many times to cope with problems They speak the same language Feel comfortable living with individuals of their own heritage (“birds of a feather….”) Ghettos made it difficult to assimilate

21 Establishing A New Life
The Assimilation of the Immigrant’s Children  Some attended school Adults were too busy working and caring for family to learn the language Learning the language would have to come from school Easier to become assimilated for younger adults

22 Establishing A New Life
Assimilation  The “Melting Pot” Theory All cultures melting into a new, unique, American culture Adopting American cultures Learning the language Accepting different customs, for example, food

23 Establishing A New Life
Cultural Pluralism This is the “Salad Bowl” theory Each ethnic group is proud of their culture Each individual culture blends with the others but retains it own uniqueness Will not adopt American ways Will live side by side, but will not share common cultural values and beliefs Will not learn language

24 Anti-Asian Sentiment *Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 *Gentlemen’s

25 Early Restrictions (1880-1920)
Chinese Exclusion Act {1882}: prohibited immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years also denied citizenship to Chinese already in America


27 Early Restrictions (1880-1920)
Gentleman’s Agreement Act (1907) Japanese government promised to limit future immigration to the United States Japanese Protested California schools for segregation of Japanese children Compromise was worked out President Roosevelt halted Segregation if Japan limited future immigration to the United States

28 Emergency Quota Acts 1921,1924

29 Early Restrictions (1880-1920)
Emergency Quota Acts {1921,1924}: limited the number of immigrants each country could send to America eventually prohibited all Asian immigration There were no limitations placed on immigration in the Western Hemisphere

30 The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door Emma Lazarus, 1883

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