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The Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial Revolution

2 Timeline of the Industrial Revolution
James Watt’s Steam engine 1848 – Marx’s Communist Manifesto New tools begin Agricultural rev 1st railroad (in England) Car invented In Germany 1845- Irish Potato Famine 1st airplane 1859 – Darwin’s Origin of Species

3 The Agricultural Revolution
Agricultural Revolution: a change in the way food was produced

4 CHANGES Enclosed Fields – split up and organized farms
Crop Rotation – more harvested per field

5 CHANGES Better animal breeding – more food per animal
New machinery – fewer workers needed

6 RESULTS Much more food produced with fewer workers Population grew
(Fewer farm jobs) Population grew

7 Industrial Revolution: A change in the way things were made
DOMESTIC SYSTEM FACTORY SYSTEM Making products: At home By hand One person/family Making products: In a factory By machine Many people

8 What a Nation needs to have Industry
Capital ($ for investment) Labor force (workers) Transportation system (materials and products) Raw materials (especially coal, iron, & cotton) Market (a place to sell products)

9 Great Britain had ALL of these things!

10 How Industrialization Effected Society

11 URBANIZATION People moving into cities too quickly Overcrowding
Unsafe living conditions

12 How the Other Half Lives

13 Working Conditions Child labor: Factory owners used kids as young as 5 because you could pay them less Long hours: hour days Dangerous conditions: unsafe machinery & buildings passages

14 Changing Social Roles Women: Family: Children:
either run the household or work long hours for less pay than men Family: Working class families suffered; middle class families improved Children: Unhealthy, worked in unsafe conditions

15 Transportation Greatly improved Canals and railroads built
Steam engine increased speed

16 Reactions to the Industrial Revolution

17 Reactions to the Industrial Revolution
Liberals Conservatives Want changes New republics Laissez-faire economy Want stability (no change) Old monarchies Nobles control economy

18 Adam Smith Wrote The Wealth of Nations “Laissez-Faire”
Government hands off of business

19 Thomas Malthus Believed population was increasing faster than food supply Said solution was to let the poor starve

20 Charles Darwin Wrote The Origin of Species Theory of Evolution
Natural selection – survival of the fittest

21 Social Darwinism Said the rich and powerful are the “fittest”
Used to justify racism Used as an excuse to take advantage of working class, weak nations

22 Socialism – economic system in which society owns business & everyone shares work and profits
Utopian Socialism Marxist Socialism Everyone shares everything Goal  Peace and equality Started by Karl Marx Workers of the world unite and violently overthrow the middle class (bourgeoisie) Goal  end capitalism, create classless society

23 The Arts Late 1700s Emotion, not reason Early 1800s
Romanticism Realism Late 1700s Emotion, not reason Ex. Beautiful landscapes Impressionism Early 1800s Show the world as it really was Ex. Dicken’s novels Late 1800s Anti-realism Ex. Monet


25 Attempts to Reform Society

26 Attempts to Reform Society
Sadler Report Education Report on Child labor Led to child labor laws Public schools created Get kids out of factories

27 Suffrage Means the right to vote Extended to all men, then women

28 Labor Legislation Safety conditions: less hours, safer machines
Women and children: less hours, safer work Trade Unions: created to protect workers, used strikes and protests

29 Global Migrations CAUSES

30 Improved Transportation
Social Causes Population growth (cities too crowded) Poor living conditions Poor working situations Political Causes People were leaving monarchies and wanting democracy Improved Transportation Expanded the search for raw materials Search out new markets

31 EXAMPLES of migration Europeans go to America for opportunity
Irish come to America due to potato famine

32 Essential Questions How did the Agricultural Revolution support the Industrial Revolution? More food  able to feed cities; less work on farms How can the Industrial Revolution be considered the major turning point in history? Huge population increase; transportation inventions; new reforms How did the abuses of the Industrial Revolution lead to the competing ideologies for social change? Ideologies compete to solve social problems Liberal vs. Conservative Capitalism vs. Socialism

33 government regulation Economy where decisions
Essential Questions Compare and Contrast the ideas of Adam Smith and Karl Marx? Capitalism – Adam Smith Socialism – Karl Marx Definition Supporting Theory Role of the Government Who owns the means of production (factories & farms) Economy without government regulation Economy where decisions are made by the gov’t Laissez-Faire The Wealth of Nations Socialism Communist Manifesto Gov’t does NOT Interfere in business Gov’t makes ALL Economic decisions Private ownership (by ppl) Gov’t owns all businesses

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