2 Aggressive DictatorsThroughout the 1930s, dictators took aggressive actionYet, they met only verbal protests and pleas for peace from Western powers (e.g., “slap on the wrist” response)Example: When the League of Nations condemned Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Japan simply withdrew from the League (What could the League do to Japan??)A few years later, Japanese armies invaded China, starting the Second Sino-Japanese WarMussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935 to show the world its fascist supremacy and military strength against a weaker nationEthiopia was no match for Italy’s tanks, guns, airplanes, poison gas, etc.
5 Aggressive DictatorsThe League of Nations voted sanctions (economic penalties) against Italy, but the League had no military power to enforce its punishment of MussoliniHitler, too, defied the Western democracies by building up the German military and sending troops into the de-militarized RhinelandMarching troops into the Rhineland violated the terms of the Treaty of VersaillesThe Western democracies denounced Hitler but adopted a policy of appeasement
6 AppeasementA policy of giving in to the demands of an aggressor nation (e.g., Germany, Italy, Japan, etc.) in order to keep the peace and avoid war
9 Rhineland (region between France and Germany) Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was forbidden to have any troops in the Rhineland, the area between Germany and France.
10 AppeasementDefinition: to yield or concede to the belligerent demands of (a nation, group, person, etc.), such as HitlerAppeasement developed for a number of reasons, including widespread pacifism (opposition to war or violence of any kind)The United States did NOT want to get dragged into another European conflict like World War IThe USA responded with a series of Neutrality Acts whose goal was to avoid involvement in a war, rather than to prevent oneNeutrality Acts – 1) prohibited sale of weapons to warring nations, 2) prohibited loans to warring countries, and 3) Americans could not travel on ships of warring nations (Remember the Lusitania in WWI??)
11 Leaders of the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) While the Western democracies sought to avoid war, Germany, Italy, and Japan formed an alliance called the Axis Powers.
12 SpainIn Spain, a new more liberal government came into power and passed reforms that upset conservatives and military leadersGeneral Francisco Franco, who was opposed to the new government, ignited a civil war ( )Franco commanded the Nationalist (pro-Fascist) forcesHitler and Mussolini supported Franco, their fellow fascistThe USSR sent troops to support the anti-fascists, or Loyalists
13 SpainThe British, American, and French governments remained neutral, although individuals from these countries fought alongside the LoyalistsBy 1939, Franco had triumphed and defeated the loyalist forcesSpain became a fascist country like Italy and GermanyHitler and Germany used the Spanish Civil War as a “dress rehearsal” for Germany and Italy who were preparing for World War II
16 German Aggression German aggression continued throughout Europe In 1938, Hitler forced the Anschluss, or union with Austria because Austrians are German-speaking to become part of the Third ReichNext, Hitler demanded the SudetenlandThe Sudetenland was a part of Czechoslovakia where three million ethnic Germans and German-speakers livedAt the Munich Conference (1938), which was held to discuss the tense situation, British and French leaders chose appeasement and allowed Hitler to annex the territoryIn March 1939, Hitler broke his promise and took over the rest of Czechoslovakia
20 Nazi-Soviet PactMonths later, Hitler and Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact (non-aggression pact)1) They agreed not to fight if the other went to war2) Stalin and Hitler secretly agreed to carve up Poland after WWII beganThis paved the way for Germany’s invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, which triggered the beginning of WWII
21 Nazi-Soviet PactThe Nazi-Soviet Pact stunned the world because it was an agreement between arch enemies: Fascist Germany and Communist Soviet UnionHowever, both sides were simply using each other to buy timeIn June, 1941, Hitler, without advanced warning, broke the Nazi-Soviet Pact and invaded the Soviet Union
22 Signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact August 23, 1939
23 Powerpoint Questions (13 points) 1. What country did Italy invade in 1935?2. What was the response of the League of Nations toward the aggressive countries in the 1930s?3. What area did Japan invade?4. What is appeasement?5. How did Hitler defy the Treaty of Versailles?6. What is pacificism?7. Why did the United States pass the Neutrality Acts?
24 Powerpoint Questions (13 points) 8. Who was the fascist leader of Spain who ignited the Spanish Civil War?9. What is the term for the union of Austria and Germany?10. What part of Czechoslovakia did Hitler demand to annex?11. What were the key elements of the Nazi-Soviet Pact? (2 points)12. On what date did World War II begin?