Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ASEAN WORKING GROUP ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (AWGWRM)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ASEAN WORKING GROUP ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (AWGWRM)"— Presentation transcript:

1 ASEAN WORKING GROUP ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (AWGWRM)
“ASEAN IWRM Country Strategy Guidelines IWRM Monitoring Status Guidelines for ASEAN Countries” ~JUNE 2013~

2 Proposed Workshop for the ASEAN IWRM Country Strategy Guidelines
Malaysia is still waiting and hoping that all AMS give full cooperation to give respond to the questionnaire on “ASEAN IWRM Country Strategy Guidelines”; The project proposal for “ASEAN IWRM Country Strategy Guidelines” workshop will be submitted to the ASEAN Secretariat to seek funding support; Countries that has not responded are Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia ; Upon receiving all the feedback, only then Malaysia will be able to prepare draft guidelines on “ASEAN IWRM Country Strategy Guidelines”; The draft guidelines will be tabled in the proposed “ASEAN IWRM Country Strategy Guidelines” Workshop.

3 Feed Back From ASEAN Countries
Country Key Issues Malaysia Myanmar Singapore Indonesia Vietnam Lao Cambodia Brunei Thailand Philippine Water Supply / N O R E S P D No Respond Irrigation No Respond NA Storm Water Management Flood Management Water Pollution Management Sanitation Management

4 DETAILED FEEDBACK FROM ASEAN MEMBER COUNTRIES

5 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines Percentage of population having access to piped drinking water In the Philippines, the extent of water supply and coverage and population access to safe drinking water and sanitation services cannot be fully ascertained as monitoring systems and linkages still to be strengthened or developed. Based on estimates made by Moore (2006), out of the 80% water supply coverage only 76 % are having piped connections, On the other hand, Worldbank Report (2005) showed that the population with formal access to safe drinking water is around 79% distributed as follows: 44% with individual house connections, 10% with shared connections through communal faucets and 25% relying on shared point sources without distribution. The extension of coverage has not kept pace with the growing population in the last few decades. According to the Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation of UNICEF and WHO, access to an improved source of water supply actually decreased from 87% in 1990 to 85% in 2004. In order to address the MDG targets on access to potable water supply the Philippine Water Supply Roadmap was formulated that identified short and long term programs/plans. As regards to the availability of updated and validated information and baseline data on water supply coverage, a sector assessment study is currently being conducted.

6 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont…. Average hour of water supplied per day Per capita domestic water consumption Generally 18 – 24 hours Currently there is no standard information on the number of hours the different water service providers are operating. It varies depending on the guidelines imposed by regulatory agencies and the condition of water service providers and sources of water supply. For Metro Manila, served by the two private concessionaires (Maynilad and Manila Water) water is being supplied 24 hours a day or less depending on the area being served. In other urban areas, Water District’s water is supply water for less than 24 hours a day. Private water service providers being regulated by the National Water Resources Board (NWRB), the water supply hour is only 8 hours however, actual operation could be less. Variable In a 2004 sample of 45 water service providers, the NWRB found an average consumption of 118 l/d/c. The highest consumption was recorded in the East Zone of Metro Manila with 232 l/d/c.[26]

7 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont…. Percentage of water supply metered Percentage of UFW/NRW Generally, water supply by piped connections is metered. At this point, we don’t have statistics of the percentage of water supply metered. Typically more than 20 % In the Philippines the provision of basic water services is the responsibility of various institutions and the consolidation of information on NRW of these water service providers could take time. Available information shows that the estimated NRW of the two concessionaires tasked to serve Metro Manila ranges from 20% to 66%. On the other hand, for provincial urban water services Water Districts’ average NRW is 26%. Malaysia Percentage of population having access to piped drinking water Percentage of water deliver (cu.m) to customer meeting WHO guidelines for drinking water quality 91.6 % Urban – 96.8% Rural – 86.5% 100% All water supplied through pipe network are produced in water treatment plant which is complied to the WHO standard Rural area getting water from well or channeled from river or other water course are complied with minimum standard

8 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont…. Average hour of water supplied per day Per capita domestic water consumption Percentage of water supply metered 24 hrs All water supplied through pipe network are available all the time 202 l/c/d is a national average 100% Domestic – 64.9% Commercial – 35.1% Thailand Percentage of population having access to piped drinking water Percentage of water deliver (cu.m) to customer meeting WHO guidelines for drinking water quality 99.45 From the total of 8,220,609 households there are 8,175,298 (99.45%) households that have household drinking water with adequate consumption throughout the year, another 45,311 households (0.55%) do not have adequate household drinking water. 88.5 Thailand follows WHO’s guidelines for drinking water quality but the remaining 12.5% do not meet the guidelines because of inefficiency in management. The delivery of water in Thailand is done by Metropolitan Waterworks Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, and by concession.

9 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Average hour of water supplied per day Per capita domestic water consumption Percentage of water supply metered Percentage of UFW/NRW 24 Water is supplied 24 hours per day however we have campaigns for using water wisely. 50 liters per capita per day 5 liters per capita per day for drinking and 45 liters per capita per day for using No respond 45-50 Unaccounted for water (UFW) or non-revenue water (NRW) is due to illegal connections or unregistered meters, leakages, and unbilled consumption such as water used for fire fighting. Singapore Percentage of population having access to piped drinking water 100% PUB adopts a holistic approach to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) through management of the entire water loop, from sourcing to the collection, purification and supply of drinking water, to the treatment of used water to reclaim high grade water or NEWater, as well as the drainage of stormwater. To ensure a diversified and sustainable supply of water, PUB has developed four sources of water supply (known as the Four National Taps), namely local catchment water, imported water, NEWater and desalinated water to meet Singapore demand.

10 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Sinagpore cont.. Percentage of water deliver (cu.m) to customer meeting WHO guidelines for drinking water quality Average hour of water supplied per day 100% PUB has put in place water quality monitoring and control systems to manage the safety of the water supply network.  On-line surrogate parameters sensors were installed at strategic locations in the network and at the service reservoirs for continuous monitoring of the water quality. This is in addition to the water samples that are being taken daily from the service reservoirs and at the downstream distribution network for testing and analysis.  On the customers end, customers are advised to manage and maintain their water reticulation systems including water tanks through education and legislation. The water supply network has been HACCP (Health Analysis and Critical Control Points) certified. A water safety plan for the water supply network is in place in accordance with the WHO guidelines. 24 The network is also an important component in determining the success of the supply system. A well managed and robust network system will result in less frequent supply disruptions and low system losses. For PUB, this has led to overall customers’ satisfaction, and also enables PUB’s unaccounted-for-water (UFW) to be one of the lowest in the world. UFW is often used as a measure of the efficiency of the water supply system. By having a low UFW, almost every drop of water is accounted for and wastage is kept low. This helps in maximising the useful throughput of our water supply system for both water works and network.

11 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Sinagpore cont.. 4. Per capita domestic water consumption 154 lpc 10 Litre Challenge - The 10-Litre Challenge is PUB’s umbrella programme for water demand management in the domestic sector. It was introduced in 2006 to encourage Singaporeans to reduce their daily water consumption by 10 litres. Singapore’s per capita domestic water consumption has been reduced from 165 litres/ day in 2003 to 154 litres/day in 2010. ∙ Enhanced Water Efficient Homes (WEH) - Under the enhanced WEH programme, PUB officers conduct visits to households including private housing with higher water consumption to help them with the installation of water saving devices. ∙ Water Volunteer Group (WVG) - PUB works with the community and grassroots organisations to form VWGs, which conduct house visits to educate homeowners on water conservation practices and assist in the installation of water saving devices.   ∙ Mandatory Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (MWELS) - MWELS was introduced in 2009 to help consumers make more informed purchasing decisions and encourage suppliers to introduce more water efficient products into the market.  As part of the scheme, suppliers are required to label the water efficiency of their appliances on all displays, packaging and advertisements.  MWELS currently covers taps, mixers, urinals and dual-flush low capacity flushing cisterns (LCFCs).  In addition, suppliers are also encouraged to label the water efficiency of washing machines and showerheads under the voluntary water efficiency labelling scheme.

12 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Sinagpore cont.. Percentage of water supply metered To complement MWELS, minimum water efficiency standards for these appliances were introduced at the same time, with all new developments and existing premises undergoing renovation required to install products with at least a “1-tick” water efficiency rating.  10% Challenge - The 10% Challenge is the umbrella programme for engaging the non-domestic sector to improve their water efficiency and reduce water consumption. Through sustainable and efficient design and use of water conservation devices, as well as proper monitoring and management, PUB aims to help businesses save 10% of their monthly water consumption, thereby lowering their operational costs.  100% In Singapore, the entire water supply system from waterworks to customer premises is 100% metered.   This is done for three main reasons: Billing to Customer Accounting of water use (Management of Unaccounted For Water) Water Conservation Measures PUB uses water meters of various sizes ranging from 15 mm to 300 mm in diameter to monitor water consumption in customer premises.  PUB ensures that all meters serving customers are accurate to within 3% allowable error by having a rigorous tendering process to purchase good quality and accurate meters as well as dynamic bulk-changing programme.  In domestic premises, volumetric type Class C type meters are used whilst for non-domestic premises, velocity type meters are used in particular compound meters are installed to measure low/high flows accurately.  To check the accuracy of meters, PUB operates a meter workshop for maintaining and testing meters. 

13 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Sinagpore cont.. Percentage of UFW/NRW About 5 % In the control of UFW, PUB adopts a holistic approach through its Integrated Water Network Management.  3 key components of the Integrated Water Network Management System are : (i)         Good quality network and efficient management Good quality materials and fittings such as copper and ductile iron/steel pipe with cement lining, which are more durable and corrosion-resistant are used in new networks and on-going replacement programmes.  The pressure in the network is also being optimised to increase the durability and lifespan of pipes, minimise leakages from non-detectable underground leakages.  Network analysis are carried out and pressure reducing valves are used to reduce excessive pressure. (ii)        Active leakage controls A multi-pronged approach and dynamic leak detection programme is adopted to check the soundness of the mains of the entire network annually with leak prone areas checked 2 or even 3 times annually. The programme involves visual inspection of leaks along all transmission and distribution pipeline routes and the use of leak noise localisers to quickly identify the potential areas of leakage.  The use of metallic pipes helps in acoustic leak detection/tracing due to the better sound and electrical conductivity of metallic materials compared with plastic materials.  Priority is accorded to regions which are more prone to leaks based on leak history as well as the age of the watermains in the region.  (iii)       Accurate Metering In Singapore, the entire water supply system from waterworks to customers’ premises is metered.  For the waterworks output, electro-magnetic flow meters are used.  Also, PUB ensures that all meters serving customers are accurate to within 3% allowable error by having a rigorous tendering process to purchase good quality and accurate meters as well as dynamic bulk-changing programme.  In domestic premises, volumetric type Class C type meters are used whilst for non-domestic premises, velocity type meters are used in particular compound meters are installed to measure low/high flows accurately.  To check the accuracy of meters, PUB operates a meter workshop for maintaining and testing meters. 

14 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Myanmar Percentage of population having access to piped drinking water 72 % on safe water Lao Overall, about half 51.5% of the population us and improved source of drinking water 70.4 percent in urban areas, 49.6 % in rural areas with road access and 35.0 % in rural areas without road access. Across regions, the coverage ranges from 56.7 % of the North region to 47.0 % of the central region % of households in the richest quintile use an improved source of water while only 40.4 % of those in the poorest quintile Year of 2005: Urban areas 67% with 43% of urban household access pipe water Year of 2006 70% pipe water supply 140 small towns with 21% coverage. Year of 2008: 77% people accessed to water supply Year of 2010: The total population in service area of water supply is 1,277,059 Population served water supply is 880,392 The approximately population accessed to pipe drinking water is 70% of service area (North – southern part of Lao PDR) Source: - In the book MICS 2006 - Xaymontry, S.; (2010) Investment and Development on Urban Water Supply final draft, Department of Housing and Urban Planning, Ministry of Public Work and Transportation, Vientiane, Lao PDR. - Mongphachan, S.; (2010) Urban Water Sector Regulation in Lao PDR: Reform key Measure, successes and challenges. Multi-Year Expert Meeting on Service, Development and Trade: the Regulation and Institutional Dimension.

15 Monitoring Indicators
Water Supply cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Lao Percentage of water deliver (cu.m) to customer meeting WHO guidelines for drinking water quality Average hour of water supplied per day Per capita domestic water consumption Percentage of water supply metered. Percentage of UFW/NRW 2009: Water production capacity 317,010 m3/day The currently data on average hour of water supplied per day is not available but, the year of 2020: Target to provide 24 hours drinking water for 80% of the urban population. Year of 2000: the availability of 20 litres per capita per day at a distance no longer than 1,000 metres Source: Chanthaphone, S., (2010) Water Supply and Sanitation coverage to date in Lao PDR. Annual production of water supply 94,860,534 m3 ( year 2009) No Vietnam No respond Cambodia Brunei Indonesia

16 Monitoring Indicators
Irrigation Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines Percentage of irrigated area versus the total potential irrigable area 49% as of 2008 The government has undertaken the biggest reform initiative on the irrigation sector for the last 30 years. The government intensified its program on rehabilitation, repair and restoration of irrigation systems. The government through the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) is currently undertaking the following programs: Irrigation Sector Restructuring and Reform, to support the implementation of a rationalization plan for NIA and the strengthening of its institutional capacity to deliver efficient irrigation services; Irrigation Infrastructure Development, to improve the delivery of irrigation services in at least 58 selected NISs through rehabilitation with modernization ; and Project Management and Coordination, to provide support for an efficient coordination, implementation and management of the project, including strengthening the financial management and procurement functions and the establishment and operation of the monitoring and evaluation system for the project. As of December 31, 2008, the total service area developed was 1,519,942 ha or 49% of the estimated potential irrigable area of 3,126,340 ha. Of this area, 748,593 ha are under NIS, 554,020 ha in CIS and 217,329 ha in private irrigation systems (PIS). The remaining potential area to be developed is still 1,607,073 ha. The estimated potential irrigable area those primarily devoted to rice and corn and up to 3% slope.

17 Monitoring Indicators
Irrigation cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia Percentage of irrigated area versus the total potential irrigable area Percentage of irrigated area with water quantity measuring devices Irrigation in Malaysia has been directly linked to the nation’s rice industry. The total physical paddy area (irrigated and non-irrigated) in Malaysia is about a 26,400 hectares in About 236,600 hectares or 55 per cent of the total paddy areas in the country are provided with extension irrigation and drainage facilities while the remaining are rain-fed areas. Of the irrigated areas, 204,370 hectares in Granary Areas which have irrigation canal intensity of more than 18 m/ha and the government target to increase canal intensity to m/ha providing irrigation canal to tertiary level. To achieve the country’s rice Self Suffiency Level (SSL) of 90 % the government plan to increase land and water productivity through planning and construction of small dams, reservoirs, diversions structures or pump station. Recycle of water from drainage system and rehabilitate, upgraded of irrigation canals. Efficient water use requires measurement of the waterused in both gravity and pressurezed systems. 86 per cent of irrigated areas mostly in Granary Areas (204,370 hectares), have some form of water quantity measuring devices placed at strategic locations in both open channels and closed conduits in the irrigation system.

18 Monitoring Indicators
Irrigation cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia Percentage of irrigated area versus the total potential irrigable area Percentage of irrigated area with water quantity measuring devices Irrigation in Malaysia has been directly linked to the nation’s rice industry. The total physical paddy area (irrigated and non-irrigated) in Malaysia is about a 26,400 hectares in About 236,600 hectares or 55 per cent of the total paddy areas in the country are provided with extension irrigation and drainage facilities while the remaining are rain-fed areas. Of the irrigated areas, 204,370 hectares in Granary Areas which have irrigation canal intensity of more than 18 m/ha and the government target to increase canal intensity to m/ha providing irrigation canal to tertiary level. To achieve the country’s rice Self Suffiency Level (SSL) of 90 % the government plan to increase land and water productivity through planning and construction of small dams, reservoirs, diversions structures or pump station. Recycle of water from drainage system and rehabilitate, upgraded of irrigation canals. Efficient water use requires measurement of the waterused in both gravity and pressurezed systems. 86 per cent of irrigated areas mostly in Granary Areas (204,370 hectares), have some form of water quantity measuring devices placed at strategic locations in both open channels and closed conduits in the irrigation system.

19 Monitoring Indicators
Irrigation cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont…. 3. Percentage of irrigated area with water quantity measuring devices  Efficient water use requires measurement of the waterused in both gravity and pressurezed systems. 86 per cent of irrigated areas mostly in Granary Areas (204,370 hectares), have some form of water quantity measuring devices placed at strategic locations in both open channels and closed conduits in the irrigation system. Thailand Percentage of irrigated area versus the total potential irrigable area Percentage of irrigated area with water quantity measuring devices 47 Agricultural area in Thailand about 27 million ha or 41% of country area (reported by Department of Land Development; Year ) consists of potential irrigable area about 9.6 million ha and rainfed cultivated area about million ha. Thailand has developed irrigated area about 4.54 million ha at present. Flood = 0.18 Drought = 0.38 Reference to the damages records in irrigated area in wet and dry season which was done by Irrigation Water Management Division, Office of Hydrology and Water Management, Royal Irrigation Department, main crop - rice; the large-medium scale irrigated area was damages in the production year as follows, Wet season area – 2.44 million ha damaged ha % Dry season area – 1.53 million ha damaged ha % This information is not included agricultural area of upland crop, vegetable, fish pond, shrimp culture.

20 Monitoring Indicators
Irrigation cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Thailand cont… Percentage of irrigated area with water quantity measuring devices  >95 In irrigated areas of large and medium scale irrigation projects, flow measuring devices are necessary and various kinds of devices are performed to fulfilled functions of delivery irrigation system such as staff gauge, weir, tele-metering system etc. For large scale irrigation project, improvement of the irrigation efficiency has been done on ageing infrastructure particularly distribution system which includes measuring devices. Lao Percentage of irrigated area versus the total potential irrigable area 2005 the total irrigation area is 224,232 ha NA

21 Monitoring Indicators
Irrigation cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Myanmar No respond Vietnam Cambodia Brunei Singapore NA Indonesia

22 Stormwater Management
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia Any policy on managing stormwater Any legislation on managing stormwater Any regulatory agencies to control stormwater Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage stormwater Use of computer modelling tools to model stormwater quality and quantity Availability of design manual/code of practices for stormwater management Arahan Kabinet (Jun 2001) Kuasa Menteri (2009) Arahan MSAN  UBBL Akta Jalan, Parit Dan Bangunan 1974 (Akta 133) Enforcement: Local Authorities (PBT) and Department of Environment (DOE) Regulatory: LUAS, DID, PBT, DOE SIRIM, Institut Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan, REDACS, UTM Infoworks, ArcGIS, MapInfo Urban Storm water Management Manual (MSMA) SPAH (Rainwater Harvesting System) DID Submission Checklist

23 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Thailand Any policy on managing stormwater Any legislation on managing stormwater Any regulatory agencies to control stormwater Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage stormwater Use of computer modelling tools to model stormwater quality and quantity Availability of design manual/code of practices for stormwater management No Under development and inclusion into national policy Yes Agencies controlling stormwater in Thailand Royal Irrigation Department (Surface runoff and reservoir operation) Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (Reservoir operation) Local administrator (Urban drainage) There is no availability of design manual/code of practices for stormwater management but there are some criteria for construction design or operation of infrastructure.

24 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore Any policy on managing stormwater (Yes/No) Yes Today, two-thirds of Singapore land area is water catchment, meaning that the rain that falls on two-thirds of our island would be channeled by a network of rivers and canals to reservoirs for storage for drinking water supply. To protect stormwater quality, Singapore has separate systems for the collection of stormwater and used water. This ensures that the inland waterways, reservoirs, and the sea surrounding Singapore are not polluted through the indiscriminate discharge of untreated or semi-treated used water and trade effluent. The separation of the systems also prevents stormwater from entering the used water systems and causing overflow, as may happen in the case of combined storm sewers. Heavy industries which pose a greater risk of pollution are also sited outside of our water catchment areas. For activities permitted within our catchment areas, both the national water agency, PUB, and the national environment agency, NEA, work together to ensure that the necessary pollution measures, such as earth control measures and good housekeeping practices, are implemented on site during the construction and operation of the facilities so as not detrimentally impact stormwater quality.

25 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont… Any legislation on managing stormwater (Yes/No) Any regulatory agencies to control stormwater (Yes/No) The Sewerage and Drainage Act, administered by PUB, empowers PUB to ensure that proper drainage systems are designed for the purposes of flood protection and to channel runoff to reservoirs for storage. It also provides for penalties for offences that have resulted in serious water pollution. For example, the Surface Water Drainage Regulations which are part of the Sewerage and Drainage Act, governs discharges into the storm water drainage system. These regulations prohibit the discharge of silt or suspended solids into open drains in concentrations greater than 50 milligrams per litre. The regulations require that every person carrying out earthworks or construction works should provide and maintain effective eart control measures and take adequate measures to prevent “any earth, top soil, cement, concrete, debris, or any other material to fall or be washed into the stormwater drainage system”. The discharge of wastewater into open drains, canals and rivers is regulated by the Environmental Protection and Management Act and the Environmental Protection and Management (Trade Effluent) Regulations, administered by NEA. Industrial wastewater must be treated to specified standards before being discharged into a sewer or watercourse (if the public sewer is not available). Yes PUB, the national water agency, regulates the provision of adequate drainage to manage stormwater flows and flood prevention NEA, the national environment agency, regulates activities that would affect water quality in the watercourses

26 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont… Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage stormwater (Yes/No) Use of computer modelling tools to model stormwater quality and quantity (Yes/No) Yes Through its Central Building Plan Unit, NEA ensures that environmental factors are incorporated into land use planning, development and building control of new developments. PUB’s drainage requirements are also incorporated during development consultations. PUB’s team of dedicated catchment surveillance officers comb areas all over Singapore daily, looking out for various sources of pollution in our water catchments. These officers work closely with the National Environment Agency to report and resolve occurrences of poor housekeeping practice and illegal discharges to protect stormwater quality. Modeling software is used to assess the adequacy of existing and proposed drainage systems to cope with runoff generated from storm events. MIKE-11, a modeling software developed by the Danish Hydraulic Institute, is used to run simulations of design storms to provide planners with the water levels and discharge velocities in the canals so that drainage systems can be sized adequately for the purposed of flood control. To manage water quality in our reservoirs, a coupled 1D-3D hydrodynamic model using SOBEK and Delft-3D was developed to determine inflows from the catchment and the resultant water quality in the reservoir. This model has been developed for the Marina, Punggol and Serangoon Reservoirs. The model will evaluate the effectiveness of the various source control and mitigation measures and will be incorporated into an operational management tool to aid reservoir operators in their day to day work.

27 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont… Availability of design manual/code of practices for stormwater management (Yes/No) Yes PUB’s Code of Practice on Surface Water Drainage stipulates the planning and design requirements for surface water drainage for new developments and is used by Qualified Persons to ensure that all aspects of surface water drainage are effectively taken care of in the planning, design and implementation of the development proposals. NEA’s Code of Practice on Pollution Control aims to inform industrialists, architects, professional engineers and consultants on pollution control requirements for the submission of development proposals and building plans. It includes requirements for water pollution control, such as the need for collection and treatment of contaminated rainwater from process areas before discharge to the watercourses. Lao Any policy on managing stormwater Any legislation on managing stormwater 3. Any regulatory agencies to control stormwater No, Lao PDR haven’t face with big storm yet, so the policy might develop in future. No No, NA

28 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage stormwater Use of computer modelling tools to model stormwater quality and quantity Availability of design manual/code of practices for stormwater management No, NA Brunei Any policy on managing stormwater Any legislation on managing stormwater 3. Any regulatory agencies to control stormwater Yes. The Department of Drainage and Sewerage is due to release the Storm Drainage Management Manual by the end of this year. Not yet. This will be set up in the near future, most probably along with the setting up of Drainage and Sewerage Act. The Department of Drainage and Sewerage.

29 Stormwater Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage stormwater Use of computer modelling tools to model stormwater quality and quantity Availability of design manual/code of practices for stormwater management Not yet. At this stage, DDS is only involved in checking and giving advice on land/building development applications related to drainage and sewerage issues, reporting to the Development Control Competent Authority, which is now under ABCi (Authority of Building and Construction Industry), Ministry of Development. Yes. Computer modeling is normally done during study projects prior to project implementation. At the moment, DDS is focusing on storm water quantity but in the coming years, storm water quality will also be addressed. JASTRE (Enviroment, Parks & Recreation Department) is the other agency involved in monitoring of water quality. They are now in the process of installing several water quality monitoring stations. Yes. The Department of Drainage and Sewerage is due to release the Storm Drainage Management Manual by the end of this year, or early next year. Philippines No respond Myanmar Vietnam Cambodia Indonesia

30 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines Any steps taken to implement Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches in the country Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems Still in the process of coordinating with concerned agencies on this matter. Malaysia Malaysia has taken the Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approach in managing floods. In 2009, a seminar on IFM with the theme “Living with Flood Risks” was jointly organized with WMO, Cap-Net and Malaysia Water Partnership (MyWP) for stakeholders and practitioners in flood management. The purpose of the seminar was to ensure the target group understand the concept of IFM and apply it in solving flood problems. The DID, has taken the elements of IFM in preparing Flood Management Master Plan(FMMP), first by considering the whole river basin in terms of water resources and water cycle. FM measures include structural measures and non structural measures such as flood hazard maps, river corridor management, flood forecasting and flood warning systems. Flood emergency management is already in place. Stakeholders and community interactions before drafting Flood mitigation systems still needs improvement.

31 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont…. Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by a real time flood monitoring information system Percentage of annual national budget allocated to flood managemen Any legislation on river conservation 70 % We have setup more than 335 early flood warning and response system namely siren system, flood information board, and flood forecasting models around the country including Sabah and Sarawak. 90 % We have been monitoring real time flood information system by using online web-base known as Infobanjir (infobanjir.water.gov.my) in which we setup about 300 stations for water level and rainfall telemetry station at all around the country. These also include more than 30 locations of the real time web-cameras installed at the strategic locations. RM7.56 on a period of Funds for flood management are through the National Development budget. For the period , the Government has allocated RM7.56 billion for flood mitigation projects. There is available legislation for a component of river conservation provided in the country but it is not comprehensive. There is Water Act 1920 and Water Enactment for Federal Government and State Government respectively. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia is now drafting the water resources policy and legislation in the country.

32 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont…. Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by a real time flood monitoring information system Percentage of annual national budget allocated to flood managemen Any legislation on river conservation 70 % We have setup more than 335 early flood warning and response system namely siren system, flood information board, and flood forecasting models around the country including Sabah and Sarawak. 90 % We have been monitoring real time flood information system by using online web-base known as Infobanjir (infobanjir.water.gov.my) in which we setup about 300 stations for water level and rainfall telemetry station at all around the country. These also include more than 30 locations of the real time web-cameras installed at the strategic locations. RM7.56 on a period of Funds for flood management are through the National Development budget. For the period , the Government has allocated RM7.56 billion for flood mitigation projects. There is available legislation for a component of river conservation provided in the country but it is not comprehensive. There is Water Act 1920 and Water Enactment for Federal Government and State Government respectively. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia is now drafting the water resources policy and legislation in the country.

33 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont…. Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage floods DID under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) is responsible in planning, implementation, monitoring and valuation of flood mitigation projects for floods due to riverbank overflow or storm water discharge. Local authorities will solve floods due to ineffective local drainage. Policies or matters on floods involving two or more agencies are discussed in the National Water Resources Council headed by The Prime Minister or the Permanent Commission on Flood Control headed by the Minister of NRE. Flood Relief Machinery is headed by the Deputy Prime Minister. These committees provide platforms for all agencies involved in flood mitigation formulation and flood disaster to work together. Thailand 1. Any steps taken to implement Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches in the country (Yes/No) 2. Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems Yes Thai Government designs the flood management policies into three stages. The stages and tasks in each stage are as follows. - Before flood stage; such as preparation of historical flood map for flood defence planning. - During flood stage; such as evacuation of people and properties to the safe area. - After flood stage; such as clearing of rubbish, removal of mud, restoration of household and public goods. 66 Department of Water Resources (DWR) set up early warning system in high risk area in upper river basin. Risk Areas consist of 2,370 villages. Now there are 66% of high risk flood-prone areas in Thailand covered by early flood warning and response systems.

34 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Thailand cont…. Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by a real time flood monitoring information system Percentage of annual national budget allocated to flood managemen Any legislation on river conservation Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage floods (Yes/No) 28 DWR has initiated the study, survey and installation of Telemetry System for 7 of 25 Basins in Thailand consisting of Khong, Chi, Mun, Chao Phraya, Bang Pakong, Prachin Buri and Tha Le Sap Songkhla Basins. Annual Budget of DWR for flood management is almost 1 % consist of budget for Early warning system we use about 170 million bath from and Telemetering project about 422 million bath from Yes We have legislation on river conservation for example, Royal Irrigation Department has legislation for irrigation areas, Department of Pollution Control set up surface water quality standard for classification of water with the objectives of controlling and maintaining water quality, and also for conservation of natural resources and environment. DWR drafted new Water Resources Act to enhance the development, management and conservation of water resources. In Thailand there are 3 main Ministries to manage floods. Department of Water Resources (DWR) under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment monitors basin areas of the whole country. Royal Irrigation Department (RID) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives monitors irrigation areas. Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation under the Ministry of Interior operates post-flood measures such as restoration of households or restoration of damaged infrastructures.

35 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore Any steps taken to implement Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches in the country (Yes/No) Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems Yes 3 key strategies are adopted to manage the risk of floods. They are: (i) providing adequate drainage infrastructure and capacity ahead of new developments; (ii) raising road and building levels for flood protection; and (iii) continually improving drainage in flood-prone areas and hot spot areas. Non-structural measures include expanding the network of water level sensors to cover all major rivers and canals, including flood prone areas and hot-spots. Data from these sensors are available to the public on a website. Weather forecasts can also be accessed online and via hotline. Flood advisories are also distributed to premises in flood prone areas so that residents will know what actions they can take to protect themselves from future occurrences. 100 % When heavy rain warnings are received from the Meteorological Services Division, staff and contractors will be deployed to identified hotspot and flood prone areas to monitor the situation and carry out necessary actions to keep the drains free flowing and ensure public safety. PUB also works closely with the other agencies such as the Land Transport Authority, Traffic Police, Singapore Civil Defense Force, and the media to manage the site conditions and update the public with timely information. At the same time, PUB will also mobilise its contractors to standby their pumps and tankers to assist affected premises where necessary. An SMS alert system to provide early warning of potential floods will be rolled out to the public in 2011.

36 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Lao Any steps taken to implement Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches in the country Percentage of high risk flood prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems  Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by a real time flood monitoring information system Percentage of annual national budget allocated to flood management Any legislation on river conservation  Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage flood Flood prepared program in Khammoune Province Ongoing assessing disaster Risk hazard map Hydrology and Meteorology department under WREA project. Disaster (Flood and dough) management project under WREA and Ministries related budget of 20 millions USD supported by ADB &WB Water law , draft national water resources , policy and strategy Flood management programme ( under MRC) National Disaster management Committee (NDMC)

37 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Brunei Any steps taken to implement Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches in the country Percentage of high risk flood prone areas in the country covered by early flood warning and response systems  Percentage of high risk flood-prone areas in the country covered by a real time flood monitoring information system Percentage of annual national budget allocated to flood management Any legislation on river conservation  Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage flood Yes. Integrated Flood Management (IFM) approaches are the recommendation made by consultants in all of the feasibility projects carried out by DDS for the last 10 years. These recommendations form part of the long term planning in flood mitigation in this country, and the IFM will be implemented in stages.  Due to the relatively small size of the country, the percentage of high risk flood prone area in Brunei covered by early response system is 100%. However, a more comprehensive flood forecasting and warning system involving the use of IBM super computer is now being modeled at UBD. As explained above, on completion of flood forecasting and warning system being modeled under UBD-IBM, and with the addition of adequate hydrometric stations within the major flood prone areas, it is hoped that real-time flood monitoring system will be realized, in stages starting in 2013. Approximately B$12 million annually No legislation specific to river conservation yet. This can easily be incorporated under the upcoming Drainage and Sewerage Act. Yes. (i) Implementation of Flood Mitigation Schemes under DDS. (ii) Early flood response under National Disaster Management Centre (NDMC)

38 Monitoring Indicators
Flood Management cont. Country Monitoring Indicators Description Myanmar No respond Vietnam Cambodia Indonesia

39 Water Pollution Management
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines Any policy on water pollution control Any specific legislation for the management of water quality and wastewater Yes The Clean Water Act enacted in 2004 and its IRR. The law pertains to water quality management in all water bodies and shall primarily apply to the abatement and control of pollution from land-based sources. Philippine Environmental Code 1977 (Waste Management provision) – established standards for air and water quality, and guidelines for land use, natural resources, groundwater and waste management. In addition, the DENR through the EMB have policies on water pollution control through the issuance of Department Administrative Order. Likewise, Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) managing the Laguna Lake Basin has set of water pollution policies. The Clean Water Act enacted in 2004 pertains to water quality management in all water bodies and shall primarily apply to the abatement and control of pollution from land-based sources. Philippine Environmental Code 1977 (Waste Management provision) – established standards for air and water quality, and guidelines for land use, natural resources, groundwater and waste management. It also provides management policy for the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution

40 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont… Any specific financial support programme for controlling water pollutions Yes Generally funding for controlling water pollutions comes from the government. However, there are agencies like the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) that introduced market-based instrument such as the Environmental User Fee Systems (EUFS) to address environmental problems and generate revenue to help support environmental management programs. The LLDA launched the EUFS in January 1997 covering all enterprises within their jurisdiction that discharges wastewater in the Laguna de Bay system. The EUFS includes commercial/industrial establishments; agro-based industries/establishments (such as swine farms and slaughter houses); clustered dwelling (i.e. residential subdivisions) as well as domestic households. However, EUFS for households is still under development. Other market-based instruments similar to EUFS are already implemented in some areas which generate revenue for supporting environmental management programs. Likewise, the Clean Water Act of 2004 which provides the implementation of a wastewater charge system in all management areas including the Laguna Lake Region and Regional Industrial Centers through the collection of wastewater charges/fees. The system shall be established on the basis of payment to the government for discharging wastewater into the water bodies. The system is now being implemented in the Laguna Lake Region and other areas.

41 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont… Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage water pollution Any public/private sector partnership and participation in managing water pollution Yes Under the Clean Water Act, Water Quality Management Area (WQMA) with governing board compose of multi-sectoral group will be designated. To date, one governing board was already established out of the three designated pilot WQMAs. Philippine Sanitation Alliance The Alliance helps reduce water pollution and diseases. It is a public-private partnership that unites Philippine cities, private companies, business associations, government agencies, U.S. and international nongovernmental organizations and international agencies, including the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. It aims to bring together the public and private sectors to achieve a common goal of protecting human and environmental health in the Philippines.

42 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont… Any river water quality monitoring information system/database Yes The Environment Management Bureau (EMB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is continuously conducting regular water quality monitoring on classification of inland surface bodies. This classification are Class AA – waters intended as public water supply requiring only disinfection to meet the Philippine Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW); Class A- waters suitable as water supply requiring conventional treatment to meet PNSDW; Class B- water intended for primary recreation; Class C- waters for fishery, recreation/boating and supply for manufacturing processes after treatment and Class D- waters intended for agriculture, irrigation, livestock, watering etc. Another water quality monitoring for selected surface water bodies is also being conducted by EMB covering parameters such as Dissolved Oxygen (DO); Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BDO); Total Suspended Solids (TSS); and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). On the other hand, the LLDA is also conducting monitoring activities in the rivers that drain into Laguna de Bay. It is a vital component of the River Rehabilitation Program of the agency, the result of which are used to determine the effectivity of the program being implemented in correlation to improving the lakes water quality.

43 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia Any policy on water pollution control Yes It is not explicity stated but the policy intention is there within the National on Environment (NPE). The NPE states that the nation shall implement environmentally sound and sustainable development for the continous economic, social and cultural progress and enhancement of the quality of life of Malaysians.It is based on eight inter-related and mutually suporting principals and where watter is concerned will include the sustainable use of water resources, conservations of river’s vitality and diversity, and the continous improvement of its water quality. The National Policy on the Environment has seven green strategies that are directed towards sustainable development. The key areas for the seven green starategies are: Education and Awareness Effective management of natural resources and the environment Integrated development planning and implementation Prevention and control of pollution and environmental degradation Strengthening administrative and institutional mechanisms Proactive approach to regional and global environment issues Formulation and implementation of Action Plans

44 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Any specific legislation for the management of water quality and wastewater Yes There are more than 30 Associated Laws in Environmental Management with at least 26 other agencies with more tha 30 pieces of legislations are dealing with various of sources of pollution. But the principal legal instruent to control water pollution in Malaysia is the Environmental Quality Act (EQA), However, the EQA is applicable to industrial discharges and sewage. EQA is an enabling piece of legislation for preventing, abating and controling pollution and enhancing the environment via provisions on Effluents Standards and Environmental Quality Standards. Other related laws which have provisions to deal with pollution from other land based activities and also related to water quality management in Malaysia for conservation of water quality are as listed below: Specific Area Selangor Water Management Authority Enactment, 1999 Kedah Water Resources Management Enactment, 2008 Sabah Conservation of The Environment Enactment, 1999 Sabah Water Resources Enactment, 1998 National Resources and Environment Ordinance Sarawak, 1994 Specific Sector (Peninsular Malaysia) Agriculture Irrigation Areas Act,1953 Drainage Works Acts,1954 Forestry National Forestry Act (1964)

45 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Control Of River Water Acts 1920, Reviewed, 1989 River Rights Enactment of Perak Kelantan River Traffic Enactment, 1955 Pahang River Launches Enactment 6/49 Land Management National Land Code, 1965 Land Conservation Act, 1960 Earthwork by laws Domestic Water Supply Water Services Industry Act, 2006 Mining Mining Enactment, 1936 Fishery Fisheries Act, 1963 Local and Regional Planning Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 Others Local Govermnet Act, 1976 Street Drainage Building By Law (1974,1994-R) Geological Survey Act Ministerial Function Act, 1969

46 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Specific for state of Sabah and Sarawak Agriculture Drainage and Irrigation , Sabah Ordinance 15/1956 Drainage Works Ordinance Sarawak, Cap 126 Control of River Sarawak Water Ordinance Sarawak Riverine Transport Bill (1993) Land Management Sabah Land Ordinance, 1930 Sarawak Land Code, 1958 Domestic Water Supply Water Services Industry Act, 2006 Mining Mining Enactment , 1960 Sabah Mining Enactment, 1949 Sarawak Local and Regional Planning Town and Country Planning Enactment , Sabah Cap 141 Town and Country Planning Sarawak Cap 87 Others Local Authority Enactment, Sabah Ordinance 11/1961 Local Authority Ordinance Sarawak Cap 117

47 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Any specific financial support programme for controlling water pollutions Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage water pollution Yes Enforcement on the discharges of effluent from the sources subjected to the EQA 1974 and monitoring of water quality as well as the environmental awareness programmes and trainings are mainly implemented using both operating and development budget. The set-up for the formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage water pollution are done through meetings and integrated enforcement activities, integrated contingency plan and others to incorporate all the relevant agencies to response to certain water pollution issues. Specific set up includes the Water Resources Council , formation of special committees to manage and resolve specific issues sucj as pollution control from sewage, palm oil industries and as well as water supply, Integrated River Basin Management Committee, One-Stop Agency, etc

48 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Any public/private sector partnership and participation in managing water pollution Yes Partnership and participation of public/private sector in managing water pollution is through :- Training modules to help private sector to prepare themselves in accordance with Doe requirements Seminars and workshops Awareness programme and Campaign Certification Courses Attachment Programmes Collaboration programs The programmes includes organizing courses on Environmental Management and Pollution Control under the Malaysia Technical Corperation Programme (MTCP), Third Country Training Programme (TCTP), collaboration with the Judicial and Legal Training Institute, Malaysia Royal Police College , Malaysia Maritime Enforcement Agency, etc

49 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Any river water quality monitoring information system/database Any river water quality master plan at national and local levels Yes River water quality monitoring was implemented since 1978 by the Department of Environment to detect water quality changes and identify pollution sources. Water samples from 1063 monitoring stations covering 577 rivers were analyzed and Water Quality Index (WQI) computed based on 6 parameters of pollutants. These values serves as a basis for environmental assessment information/ database of a water course in correlation to pollution load categorization and designation of classes of beneficial uses as provided for under the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQS) The water quality database is maintained in the DOE and status of river water quality is published every year in the Environmental Quality Report. Only for selected river basins which DOE have conducted detailed study under the River Pollution Prevention and Water Quality Improvement Programmes whereby a set of strategies and action plan was formulated to prevent water pollution and improve water quality for each river basin.

50 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia cont… Any river basin master plan for relocating the highly polluting industries in a river basin Although there is no exclusively river master plan at national and local event but for DOE, the environmental inputs were provided to other agencies in relation to development activities as a proactive measure to prevent river pollution. Establishment of new industrial activities which are not subjected to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), particularly the Small and Medium Scale Industries (SMIs) area advice to refer ti the Department of Environmental for consideration and advice in suitability. This will ensure that a high polluting industry In a river basin is properly located in the designate area(zone) or proper pollution control measures are taken into consideration if it is to be collected outside an industrial zone. The guideline for the Sitting and Zone of Industries will be applied. For establishment that subjected to EIA, the report will be assessed to evaluate the impact on the environment before approval is given. This will ensures that the project potential problems are foreseen and address at an early stage in the project planning and design.

51 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Thailand Any policy on water pollution control Any specific legislation for the management of water quality and wastewater Yes To control wastewater in critical river basins and pollution control areas. To apply Best Practical Control Technology for communal and small enterprises. To solve water pollution in terms of area-base management. To regulate laws, standards and guidelines of wastewater management in the condition of manufacturing permits. (Thailand State of Pollution Report 2009) Defining standards for wastewater disposed from point sources such as industries, central wastewater treatment plants, swine farms, dockyards, communities, buildings and aquaculture farms. Prescribing aquaculture as pollution sources of which wastewater released to public water resources or the environment must be in control. Performing water resource classification on rivers and sub-rivers. (Thailand State of Pollution Report )

52 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Thailand cont… Any specific financial support programme for controlling water pollutions Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage water pollution Any public/private sector partnership and participation in managing water pollution Yes There is financial support for central wastewater treatment plant construction by Board of Decentralization. Wastewater Management Organization was established under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. - Thai –Lao bilateral cooperation in air quality and wastewater management. - Cooperative agreement of solving and protecting water quality in critical river basins. - Local administrations in tourist beach campaign. - Thachin river basin network. (Thailand State of Pollution Report )

53 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Thailand cont… Any river water quality monitoring information system/database Any river water quality master plan at national and local levels Any river basin master plan for relocating the highly polluting industries in a river basin Yes - Surface water quality. - Coastal water quality. - Groundwater state. - Tourist beach environmental quality. - Water quality of flood incidents. (Thailand State of Pollution Report ) Environmental Quality Management Plan A.D – 2011 (B.E ). - The Master Plan of Songkhla Lake Basin Development (Cooperated to the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning: ONEP). - Prevention and Reclamation of Wastewater Problems in Lamtaklong River Basin. (Thailand State of Pollution Report 2008) - Preventive Measures and Solving Water Quality Problems in Critical River Basins. - The Master Plan of Solving and Protecting Water Quality in Critical River Basins.

54 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore Any policy on water pollution control Any specific legislation for the management of water quality and wastewater Yes See Table 3 – 1 (page 6) Additionally, Singapore’s Integrated Catchment Water Quality Management (ICWQM) programme is made up of four key strategies: Source control (e.g. sewer rehabilitation, silt and litter control, catchment surveillance) Mitigation measures Use of technology (e.g. online monitoring and modeling); and Engaging the public through 3P initiatives (e.g. adoption and education programmes). Currently, the public sewerage system serves all industrial estates and almost all residential premises in Singapore. All wastewater is required to be discharged into the public sewerage system. See Table 3 – 2 (page 6) The provision, operation and maintenance of Singapore's sewerage system are governed by the Sewerage and Drainage Act (SDA). The treatment and discharge of industrial wastewater into public sewers are regulated by the SDA and the Sewerage and Drainage (Trade Effluent) Regulations. The sewerage Act and Regulations are administered by PUB. The discharge of wastewater into open drains, canals and rivers is regulated by the Environmental Protection and Management Act (EPMA) and the Environmental Protection and Management (Trade Effluent) Regulations. The EPMA and its Regulations are administered by NEA. Industrial wastewater must be treated to specified standards before being discharged into a sewer or watercourse (if the public sewer is not available). Additionally, industries generating large quantities of acidic effluent are required to install a pH monitoring and shut-off control system to prevent the discharge of acidic effluent into the public sewer.

55 Water Pollution Management cont…
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont… Any specific financial support programme for controlling water pollutions Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage water pollution Any public/private sector partnership and participation in managing water pollution No Yes See Table 3 – 4 (page 7) PUB’s Our Waters Programme aims to nurture a sense of ownership in people and encourage them to be guardians of our water by adopting waterways or reservoir parks, sponsoring water programmes and community events or providing resources to assist schools or other interest groups to start water projects. PUB has also partnered the Waterways Watch Society which conducts weekly river patrols and programmes to educate schoolchildren on the importance of keeping our catchments and reservoirs clean.

56 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont… Any river water quality monitoring information system/database Any river water quality master plan at national and local levels Any river basin master plan for relocating the highly polluting industries in a river basin Yes PUB’s water quality monitoring programme involves regularly monitoring the water quality of watercourses and reservoirs. Water quality samples are collected and analysed for a whole range of parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and faecal coliform bacteria. Water quality data is stored in a Water Quality Data Management System, and the analysis of this data helps us to identify trends in water quality, thereby assisting us with our management strategies for our reservoirs and waterways. Online monitoring of water quality is carried out in a number of waterways and reservoirs. Parameters like temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH and chlorophyll-a are monitored real-time and data is streamed to an operational management system to assist with day-to-day operation of our reservoirs and waterways. No NA Through comprehensive land use masterplanning, Singapore has conscientiously implemented development controls for all developments to ensure that pollutive industries are sited away from catchment areas. One example of such a programme was the Singapore River Clean-up ( ), where pollutive activities like duck and pig farming, boat yards and squatters were relocated to other areas outside of the river catchment.

57 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Lao Any policy on water pollution control Any specific legislation for the management of water quality and wastewater Any specific financial support programme for controlling water pollutions Any formal institutional arrangements among related agencies to manage water pollution Any public/private sector partnership and participation in managing water pollution Environment Protection Law No;02/99/NA dated April 3,1999, mention on Pollution Control in general and asked the related organization develop the specific legislation.  Any specific legislation for the management of water quality and wastewater the Agreement on the National Environmental Standards, that mention on both quality of water and wastewater. No. 2734/PMO.WREA. issued 7 Dec 2009 And other related organization also has their specific legislation. For example Ministry of Industry and Commerce. Agriculture Low N 01/98/NA date 10 October 1998 No  WREA, NUOL Environment Programme under Mekong River Committee (MRC)

58 Water Pollution Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Lao cont… Any river water quality monitoring information system/database Any river water quality master plan at national and local levels Any river basin master plan for relocating the highly polluting industries in a river basin Integrated Knowledge Management Programme ( MRC) No Policy and Legislation Myanmar No respond Thailand Vietnam Cambodia Indonesia

59 Sanitation Management
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines Any policy on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems Yes The following are the existing laws, policies, regulations on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems: National Plumbing Code 1959 (wastewater provision) - Guidelines, criteria and standards for the design and construction of sanitation and sewerage facilities Department of Health Circular, PD 522, IRR No 220 Series of Sewage from house plumbing system shall be connected to a public sewerage system, if available, or to a septic tank. Sanitation Code of the Philippines provides guidelines on sewerage collection and disposal, excreta disposal and drainage, with IRR Philippine Environmental Code 1977 (Waste Management provision) – established standards for air and water quality, and guidelines for land use, natural resources, groundwater and waste management. Local Government Code Devolves provision of basic services and facilities to LGUs, including sanitation, sewerage and flood control. National Policy on Urban Sewerage and Sanitation of 1994 (NEDA Board Resolution No. 5) – Giving high priority to improved urban sanitation and sewerage. Contains national policy, strategy and action plan for urban sewerage and sanitation National Building Code 1997 and its IRR contains certain provisions on wastewater disposal and drainage. It requires the connection of new buildings to sewerage system. Clean Water Act contains provision on National Sewerage and Septage Management Program.

60 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont.. Any specific legislation on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems Percentage of annual budget for sanitation and sewerage programme/projects Yes Sanitation Code of the Philippines provides guidelines on sewerage collection and disposal, excreta disposal and drainage, with IRR National Plumbing Code 1959 (wastewater provision) - Guidelines, criteria and standards for the design and construction of sanitation and sewerage facilities 3 % of the total annual average budget of the water and sanitation sector Based on the available data, a summary of investments made in the subsector since 1970 is estimated, assuming an allowance of about 25 percent for projects that were implemented by other government and private organizations (PTA's Sewerage for Boracay Environmental Infrastructure Project, projects implemented by land developers, NGOs, etc.). Investment in the sub-sector was estimated at P1.5 billion per year. This figure is 29 times less than the estimated P43.8 billion average annual investment for water supply projects. In other words, for every 97 pesos spent on water supply projects, only 3 pesos were spent on sanitation and sewerage projects.1 1 PHILIPPINES: Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Enhancement Project

61 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont.. Any integrated national and provincial institutions to implement sanitation policies Any private sector participation in providing sanitation services for the people Yes The Department of Health (DOH) formulates policies and provides technical assistance to Local Government Units (LGUs) on sanitation and environmental health while the LGU enforce the Code on Sanitation of the Philippines and recent environment and health legislation and policies; and provides basic sanitation sevices. Encouraging private sector investment Republic Act No of 1990 entitled “An Act Authorizing the Financing, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector and for Other Purposes,” manifested the government’s policy of greater private sector participation (PSP) in the provision of water and sanitation sector. Example of Private Sector Participation Boracay’s Sewerage Facility Boracay is an island in Malay municipality renowned for its beaches that derives its main income from tourism. Triggered by the threat of pollution, the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) intervened and constructed a sewerage facility through a P100 million loan, payable in ten years, from Japanese aid agency OECF. The system was scheduled to be in service through a private operator by Legislation was passed allowing PTA to charge an Environmental Management Fee to visitors (P25 for foreigners, P10 for Philippine citizens). User fees will also be charged to business establishments and households. The sewerage system was planned to serve about 70 percent of the island’s population, as well as its main tourist areas.

62 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont… Any comprehensive sewerage/sanitation master plan at national, regional and local levels Other Experiences Some developers of subdivisions, Export Processing Zones, and other land intended for tenancy are now incorporating sewerage systems as a component, particularly those targeting the high-income market. Operation and maintenance are either supplied by private operators through management contracts or provided in-house using specially trained staff. Tariffs (following the “polluter pays” principle) from all connected establishments are collected monthly to cover the amortization and operating costs of the sewerage system, which usually includes collection, treatment and disposal facilities. Examples of such private systems are found in Mactan Export Processing Zone, Philippine Export Processing Zone in Cavite, Ayala Center, and Ortigas Center. Yes Water Supply, Sewerage and Sanitation Master Plan (WSSSMP): This plan emphasized the commitment of the national government to provide for the basic needs of the population, especially in depressed areas. WSSSMP was the result of an extensive interagency undertaking that involved DPWH, DILG, NEDA, MWSS, LWUA and NWRB. WSSSMP set the framework and agenda for organized, unified action by policy makers and program implementers, at all levels of the government, to execute and manage water supply, sewerage and sanitation programs and projects throughout the country. WSSSMP was also intended to serve as an example and reference for the private sector and non-government organizations actually or potentially involved in the development of the sub-sector.

63 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont.. Any effective regulatory framework to control the quality of wastewater discharges to water courses 1994 National Urban Sewerage and Sanitation Strategy Plan (NUSS). The purpose of the sanitation program was to create a more effective institutional framework to guide policy and institutional reforms; and to propose an appropriate development strategy and investment plan to improve sewerage and sanitation coverage nationally. The Philippines’ Clean Water Act, passed in 2004, requires the preparation of a National Sewerage and Septage Management Program (NSSMP) as part of the country’s overarching National Sustainable Sanitation Plan. The NSSMP was envisioned to provide technology interventions and institutional and financial frameworks to guide local governments, water districts, and other project proponents through the process of developing infrastructure projects for managing wastewater in cities. Stakeholder consultation of the draft National Sewerage and Septage Management Program (NSSMP) is currently being undertaken. Yes DENR DAO 34 and 35 In 1990, the DENR also issued DAO 34 and 35. DAO 35 regulates the discharge of industrial wastewater effluents, while DAO 34 classifies bodies of water according to their beneficial uses. Together, DAOs 34 and 35 regulate the discharge of wastewater effluents into varying water bodies.

64 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont… Any awareness/advocacy programme for stakeholders on the importance of proper sanitation and sewerage systems Discharge Permits provided by the Clean Water Act The DENR requires owners or operators of facilities that discharge regulated effluents pursuant to the Clean Water Act to secure a permit to discharge (DAO ). The discharge permit specifies the quantity and quality of effluent that said facilities are allowed to discharge into a particular water body, compliance schedules and monitoring requirements. A self-monitoring report of the company should also be submitted to the EMB. As part of the permitting procedure, the DENR encourages the adoption of waste minimization and waste treatment technologies when such technologies are cost effective. Effluent trading may be allowed per management area. Yes Manila Declaration gains Government’s Commitment on Advancing Sustainable Sanitation (Philippine Sanitation Summit 2006: A Call for Improved Access to Sustainable Sanitation) Representatives from the national executive and legislative agencies, local governments, non-government organizations, and other external support agencies shared their commitments and resources and responsive partnership for an improved access to sustainable sanitation in the Manila Declaration on the Advancement of Sustainable Sanitation and Waste-water Management in the Philippines

65 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Philippines cont…. DENR Secretary Angelo Reyes, Health Secretary Francisco Duque III, Misamis Oriental Rep. Augusto Baculio, and NWRB Executive Director Ramon Alikpala led the signing of the Manila Declaration to accelerate the implementation of the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, marking the highlight of the Philippine Sanitation Summit 2006 held last July 5-6 at the Heritage Hotel, Manila. Training for NGO’s on ecological sanitation in Rural and Peri-urban areas in the Visayas and Mindanao The DILG-GTZ Water & Sanitation Program conducted for the first time training on ecological sanitation for local NGO’s from the Visayas and Mindanao. The 3-day training took place in Dumaguete and Bayawan City , Oriental Negros from April 24 to 26, 2007. It aims at promoting ecological sanitation not only to its partners but to all stakeholders. NGO’s play an important role in planning and implementing water and sanitation projects.

66 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Malaysia Any comprehensive sewerage/sanitation master plan at national, regional and local levels Any effective regulatory framework to control the quality of wastewater discharges to water courses Any awareness/advocacy programme for stakeholders on the importance of proper sanitation and sewerage systems Yes The National Sewerage Master Plan had been drafted at policy level and currently being reviewed by KeTTHA. Meanwhile detailed and comprehensive regional and local plans had been developed based on the district boundaries referring to Rancangan Tempatan for the respective districts. The regulatory framework adopted by SPAN to control the quantity of the wastewater discharges is through licensing. Where by class and individual licenses are issued to the sewerage treatment plants operators. These licenses are attached with KPI on the effluent compliance. The licenses can be revoked if the operators fail to operate and maintain the system by treating sewage to the prescribed standards. The wastewater quality is also regulated through the Environmental Quality Regulation (Sewage) 2009 by Department Of Environment. SPAN participate actively in the road shows and campaigns organized by operators and other agencies to advocate awareness in the water industry holistically. Currently SPAN also engage consultation with the NGOs and consumers group to engage and establish further the awareness level.

67 Sanitation Management
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore Any policy on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems Any specific legislation on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems Yes The policy is to provide 100% of our population with modern sanitation facilities. The colonial government started the first sewerage scheme in The system then consisted of only a network of sewers and 3 pumping stations and a trickling filter plant to serve the central area of Singapore. The sewerage system is designed based on a separate system whereby used water is collected separately in a network of underground sewers that lead to a treatment plant. Stormwater and surface runoff are collected in open drains and channeled to rivers and reservoirs. An intensive sewerage development programme began in the 1960's to meet the demand of the rapid housing and industrialisation programme. Today, 100% of our population is served by modern sanitation. The legislation requirement for Sewerage systems is prescribed in the Sewerage and Drainage Act.

68 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont.. Percentage of annual budget for sanitation and sewerage programme/projects Any integrated national and provincial institutions to implement sanitation policies Any private sector participation in providing sanitation services for the people Any national sanitation/sewerage information system/database (Yes/No) 1.2 % The total expenditure for sanitation and sewerage is projected to amount to some $594m in FY This is 1.2% of Government budget for FY2011 of $47.1 bln. Out of the projected expenditure of $594m, $181mil will be funded by the government from its FY2011 budget, while the remaining $413mil will be recovered from revenues collected via water borne fees and sanitary appliance fees. Yes PUB is the national water agency that manages Singapore’s water supply, water catchment and sewerage in an integrated way.   No Sewerage Interpretation Plan (SIP) captures the as-built information of sewers (i.e. alignment, as-built levels, size, material, date of construction, date of rehabilitation of sewers, etc).

69 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Singapore cont… Any comprehensive sewerage/sanitation master plan at national, regional and local levels Any effective regulatory framework to control the quality of wastewater discharges to water courses Any landuse masterplan for relocating the highly polluting industries in a river basin (Yes/No) Any awareness/advocacy programme for stakeholders on the importance of proper sanitation and sewerage systems (Yes/No)  Yes Sewerage masterplan is part of PUB’s Integrated Water Master Plan (IWMP) which outlines infrastructural plans for water, wastewater and catchment. Yes The Environmental Pollution Protection and Management Act (EPMA) safeguards all aspects of pollution control into watercourses in Singapore. No wastewater is allowed to directly discharge into watercourses. All wastewater must be discharged to sewers and only trade effluent treated to a level acceptable under the EPMA is allowed to discharge to watercourses. Overall land use master-planning of Singapore is coordinated at national level by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is Singapore's national land use planning authority. URA prepares long term strategic plans, as well as detailed local area plans, for physical development, and then co-ordinates and guides efforts to bring these plans to reality. Prudent land use planning has enabled Singapore to enjoy strong economic growth and social cohesion, and ensures that sufficient land is safeguarded to support continued economic progress and future development. Proper sanitation to be provided by all development in the country is controlled through a development control process where all professionals are informed of proper requirements and updated through an e–submission and e-circular system. Regular dialogues are also carried out  with developers and professional bodies and PUB would also give talks in trade and professional forums. For specific projects, like sewer and drainline rehabilitation, PUB also conducts outreach programme to share and explain the works to the residents. Information is also made available through our websites.

70 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Lao Any policy on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems Any specific legislation on urban/rural sanitation and sewerage systems Percentage of annual budget for sanitation and sewerage programme/projects  Any integrated national and provincial institutions to implement sanitation policies Yes Decision on the management of quality standards for drinking water and household water supply-Department of hygiene and Prevention, Ministry of Health. No.1371/MOH, 4/10/2005. Environment Protection Law (No.09/Lao PDR, 26 April 1996) Science and Technology Administration in corporate with Ministry of Justice. Hygiene, Prevention and Health Promotion Law, No.01/NA, 10 April 2001, Department of Sanitation Preventive, Ministry of Public Health NA Center for Environmental Health and Water Supply, Department of Sanitation Preventive, Ministry of Public Health

71 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Lao cont… Any private sector participation in providing sanitation services for the people Any national sanitation/sewerage information system/database (Yes/No) Any comprehensive sewerage/sanitation master plan at national, regional and local levels  Any effective regulatory framework to control the quality of wastewater discharges to water courses Any landuse masterplan for relocating the highly polluting industries in a river basin (Yes/No)  Any awareness/advocacy programme for stakeholders on the importance of proper sanitation and sewerage systems (Yes/No) Yes Sanitary services companies Sanitary fittings services companies No NA  Yes There are a lots of awareness activities on the importance of proper sanitation and sewerage systems which under the Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Public Work and Transportation Ministry of Education, UNICEF and WHO.

72 Sanitation Management cont.
Country Monitoring Indicators Description Myanmar No respond Thailand Vietnam Cambodia Brunei Indonesia

73 THANK YOU


Download ppt "ASEAN WORKING GROUP ON WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (AWGWRM)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google