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The Respiratory System

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1 The Respiratory System
Chapter 23, part 1 The Respiratory System

2 SECTION 23-1 The Respiratory System: An Introduction

3 Learning Objectives Describe the primary functions of the respiratory system Identify the organs of the respiratory system and describe their functions Define and compare the processes of external and internal respiration

4 Learning Objectives Summarize the physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into the blood Explain the important structural features of the respiratory membrane Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are picked up, transported and released in the blood

5 Functions of the respiratory system
Gas exchange between air and circulating blood Moving air from the exchange surface of the lungs Protection of respiratory surfaces Production of sound Provision for olfactory sensations

6 Organization of the respiratory system
Upper respiratory system Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx Lower respiratory system Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

7 Figure 23.1 The Components of the Respiratory System

8 The Respiratory tract Conducting passageways carrying air to and from the alveoli Upper respiratory passages filter and humidify incoming air Lower passageways include delicate conduction passages and alveolar exchange surfaces

9 Respiratory Mucosa Respiratory epithelium and underlying connective tissue Respiratory membrane, supported by lamina propria, changes along tract Lines conducting portion of respiratory tract Protected from contamination by respiratory defense system

10 Figure 23.2 The Respiratory Epithelium of the Nasal Cavity and Conducting System

11 SECTION 23-2 The Upper Respiratory System

12 The nose and nasal cavity consists of:
External nares Nasal cavity Vestibule Superior, middle and inferior meatuses Hard and soft palates Internal nares Nasal mucosa

13 Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx
Figure 23.3a, b

14 Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx
Figure 23.3c

15 The pharynx Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
Divided into three sections: Nasopharynx – superior portion Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and the esophagus

16 SECTION The Larynx

17 The larynx Air passes through the glottis on the way to the lungs
Larynx protects the glottis Cartilages of the larynx Three large cartilages Thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis Paired cartilages Arytenoids, corniculate, and cuneiform

18 Folds of the larynx Inelastic vestibular folds Delicate vocal folds

19 Figure 23.4 The Anatomy of the Larynx

20 Sound production Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds producing sound waves Pitch depends on conditions of vocal folds Diameter Length Tension

21 Figure The Glottis Figure 23.5a, b

22 The laryngeal musculature
Muscles of the neck and pharynx position and stabilize the larynx When swallowing,these muscles Elevate the larynx Bend the epiglottis over the glottis Intrinsic muscles control tension on the vocal folds and open the glottis

23 SECTION 23-4 The Trachea and Primary Bronchi

24 The trachea Extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra A tough, flexible tube running from the larynx to the bronchi Held open by C-shaped tracheal cartilages in submucosa Mucosa is similar to the nasopharynx

25 Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea
Figure 23.6a, b

26 Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea
Figure 23.6c

27 The primary bronchi Trachea branches in the mediastinum into right and left bronchi Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus Root = the connective tissue mass including: Bronchus Pulmonary vessels Nerves

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