Presentation on theme: "Drug Utilization Review (DUR)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Drug Utilization Review (DUR) Shiekha AlAujan Msc.
2 Drug Utilization Reviews (DUR) an authorized, structured, ongoing review of prescribing, dispensing and use of medication.also referred to as Drug Utilization Evaluations (DUE) or Medication Utilization Evaluations (MUE)
3 Drug Utilization Reviews (DUR) It involves a comprehensive review of patients' prescription and medication data before, during and after dispensing to ensure appropriate medication decision-making and positive patient outcomes.As a quality assurance measure, DUR programs provide corrective action, prescriber feedback and further evaluations.
5 Why DUR is importantDUR programs help to understand, interpret, evaluate and improve the prescribing, administration and use of medications.Permit a more efficient use of insufficient health care resources.
6 Why DUR is importantPharmacists play a key role in this process because of their expertise in the area of medication therapy management:DURs afford the pharmacist the opportunity to identify trends in prescribing within groups of patients such as asthma or diabetes.Pharmacists can then, in collaboration with other members of the health care team, initiate action to improve drug therapy asprevent the use of unnecessary or inappropriate drug therapyprevent adverse drug reactionsimprove overall drug effectiveness.
7 Why DUR is important DURs serve as a means of: improving the quality of patient careenhancing therapeutic outcomesand reducing inappropriate pharmaceutical expenditures, thus reducing overall health care costs.
8 Drug Utilization Reviews (DUR) Classified into three categories:Prospective - evaluation of a patient's therapy before medication is dispensedConcurrent - ongoing monitoring of drug therapy during the course of treatmentRetrospective - review of therapy after the patient has received the medication
9 Prospective DUREvaluation of a patient's therapy before medication is dispensedPharmacists routinely perform prospective reviews in their daily practice byassessing the dose and directionsreviewing for possible drug interactions or duplicate therapy.
10 Prospective DUR Issues Commonly Addressed by Prospective DUR: Drug abuse/misuseDrug contraindicationsDosage modificationDrug-drug interactionsDrug-patient precautions (due to age, allergies, gender, pregnancy, etc.)Therapeutic interchange & Generic substitutionInappropriate duration of drug treatment
11 Prospective DURExample: a patient being treated with warfarin to prevent blood clots may be prescribed a new drug by another specialist to treat arthritis If taken together, the patient could experience internal bleeding Upon reviewing the patient's prescriptions, the pharmacist would note the potential drug interaction and contact the prescriber to alert him/her to the problem.
12 Concurrent DUROngoing monitoring of drug therapy during the course of treatmentSome refer to this as case management.It presents pharmacists with the opportunity to alert prescribers to potential problems and to intervene.This type of review allows therapy for a patient to be altered if necessary.
13 Concurrent DUR Issues Commonly Addressed by Concurrent DUR: Drug-drug interactionsOver and underutilizationHigh or low dosagesDuplicate therapyDrug-disease interactionsDrug-age precautionsDrug-gender precautionsDrug-pregnancy precautions
14 Concurrent DURExample : Hospitalized patients often receive multiple medications. Pharmacist’s periodic review of patient records can detect actual or potential drug-drug interactions or duplicate therapy. also alert the pharmacist to the need for changes in medications such as antibiotics or the need for dosage adjustments based on laboratory test results. The physician must then be alerted to the situation so that corrective action can be taken.
15 Retrospective DUR The simplest to perform Drug therapy is reviewed after the patient has received the medication.may detect patterns in prescribing, dispensing, or administering drugs to prevent recurrence of inappropriate use or abuse and serves as a means for developing prospective standards and interventions.In retrospective DUR, patient medical charts or computerized records are screened individually and within groups of patients, such as diabetes, asthma, or high blood pressure.
16 Retrospective DUR Issues Commonly Addressed by Retrospective DUR: Therapeutic appropriatenessOver and underutilizationAppropriate generic useTherapeutic duplicationDrug-disease contraindicationsDrug-drug interactionsIncorrect doseInappropriate duration of treatmentDrug abuse/misuse
17 Retrospective DURExample : Upon retrospective review the pharmacist may identify a group of patients with asthma who, according to their medical and pharmacy history, should be using advanced treatment as orally inhaled steroids. Using this information, the pharmacist can then encourage physicians to prescribe the indicated drugs.
19 Steps in Conducting a Drug Use Evaluation Determine Optimal Use.Established criteria are defined to compare optimal use with actual use.Should focus on relevant outcomes and identify the relevant drugs to be monitored for optimal use in advance.For example, if the use of a drug class prescribed to treat a patient with diabetes is being evaluated, then standards should be determined to identify all drugs within the drug class and to evaluate each drug’s effectiveness, such as a decrease in blood glucose level to within normal limits.Determine Optimal UseMeasure Actual UseEvaluateInterveneEvaluate the DUR ProgramReport the DUR findings
20 Steps in Conducting a Drug Use Evaluation 2. Measure Actual Use. This step is where data are gathered to measure the actual use of medications. These data can be obtained from medical and prescription records or electronic claim forms.Determine Optimal UseMeasure Actual UseEvaluateInterveneEvaluate the DUR ProgramReport the DUR findings
21 Steps in Conducting a Drug Use Evaluation Evaluate.Acceptable thresholds (percent of patients meeting the indicator) should be determined prior to comparison between optimal and actual .During this process, the evaluator determines causes for any discrepancies and whether findings are expected.In this process, patterns can be identified and interpreted.Determine Optimal UseMeasure Actual UseEvaluateInterveneEvaluate the DUR ProgramReport the DUR findings
22 Steps in Conducting a Drug Use Evaluation 4. Intervene.This is the step where corrective action is implemented.Action should be targeted to areas of concern such as prescribing patterns, quality of drug therapy or economic consideration.Determine Optimal UseMeasure Actual UseEvaluateInterveneEvaluate the DUR ProgramReport the DUR findings
23 Steps in Conducting a Drug Use Evaluation 5. Evaluate the DUR Program.This step assesses the effectiveness of the DUR program.Efforts should be made to evaluate the outcomes and document reasons for positive and negative results.Implementing appropriate changes to the DUR program and continued observation should be undertaken.Determine Optimal UseMeasure Actual UseEvaluateInterveneEvaluate the DUR ProgramReport the DUR findings
24 Steps in Conducting a Drug Use Evaluation 5. Report the DUR findings. The final step is to report these findings to the appropriate team within the organization (e.g., the pharmacy & therapeutics committee) and/or individual prescribers when appropriate.Determine Optimal UseMeasure Actual UseEvaluateInterveneEvaluate the DUR ProgramReport the DUR findings
25 ConclusionUsing DUR information, managed care pharmacists can identify prescribing trends in patient populations and initiate corrective action to improve drug therapy for groups of patients as well as individuals.As the variety of health care professionals (e.g., pharmacists, prescribers, nurses) involved in the medication use process expands, DUR will require a more multidisciplinary approach to improving patient care.