 # 1 To Hypothesize or not Hypothesize Hypothesis: An expectation about the nature of things, derived from a theory.

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1 To Hypothesize or not Hypothesize Hypothesis: An expectation about the nature of things, derived from a theory.

2 Recall: The Hypothesis Dilemma Hypotheses are designed to express relationships between variables. If this is the nature of your question, a hypothesis can add to your research If your question is more descriptive or explorative, generating a hypothesis may not be appropriate

3 The Hypothesis Dilemma A hypothesis may not be appropriate if: You do not have a hunch or educated guess about a particular situation You do not have a set of defined variables. Your question centres on phenomenological description Your question centres on an ethnographic study of a cultural group

4 Predictions Although a qualitative study is not likely going to have an hypothesis (if – then statement), it can have predictions. Sometimes it is appropriate to discuss your predictions or expectations

5 Quantitative Studies It is frequently expected that you have clear hypotheses when you have a study using quantitative data. Even if you don’t articulate the hypothesis, it may be assumed within the statistical tool you are using.

6 The Null Hypothesis The null hypothesis is an hypothesis about a population parameter. Usually the opposite of the alternative hypothesis and/or a statement of no difference or no relationship.  e.g. H 0 : μ 1 - μ 2 = 0 or β = 0  “straw man”?

7 The Alternative Hypothesis  Usually a predictive statement regarding a relationship  Usually the opposite of the Null  e.g. H 1 : μ 1 - μ 2 ≠ 0 or β ≠ 0  We test the null in order to see if we can reject it, in order to provide evidence for the alternative.

8 The Nondirectional Hypothesis  a non-specific predictive statement regarding a relationship  Ideology and level of education covary

9 Directional Hypothesis An alternative hypothesis that predicts a more specific relationship.  e.g. H 1 : μ 1 - μ 2 > 0 or β < 0  When do you use a directional hypothesis and when do you use nondirectional hypothesis?

10 Linking Theory and Research 1. Deduction - Deriving expectations or hypotheses from theories. 2. Induction - Developing generalizations from specific observations.

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