2 The Neuroscience of Body Image OverviewHow does the brain process body image?Is there a difference between the sexes?Prevalence of eating disordersBrain functioning in eating disordersClinical experience with body image
4 The Neuroscience of Body Image Different ideal shapes for boys & girlsMen more interested in shape than weightWomen more likely to self describe as fat, diet moreWomen more likely to self assess as overweight, men as underweight compared to objective standardsMen see underweight as being bad, women as good.In one study, 4% women wanted to become bigger compared to 47% of women wanting to slim down.Among 18 yr old boys, equal numbers want to be larger and smallerDieting normal in girls but not in boys
5 The Neuroscience of Body Image Univ. of London study- 111 boys and 124 girlsages 16-18, in schoolmean body wgt of girls 57 kgs (125 lbs)mean body wgt of boys 69 kgs (152 lbs)EAT, self esteem, reason for exercise, contour drawing surveys completed.Furnham et al, J Psychol 2002
8 The Neuroscience of Body Image 80% of girls AND boys dissatisfied with their weight.However, nearly as many boys wished to be heavier (36%) as thinner (43%)Only 9 girls wished to be heavier; 75% chose an ideal figure thinner than theirsGirls/women exercise to lose weight, boys/men not necessarily.
9 The Neuroscience of Body Image Downing et al, Science 2001
10 The Neuroscience of Body Image Downing et al, Science 2001
11 The Neuroscience of Body Image Devue et al, Brain Research, 2007
13 The Neuroscience of Body Image Face recognition vs body recognitionRight frontal cortex, insula and cingulate gyrus main regions in self recognition.Posterior sensory areas versus more anterior (evolved, neocortex) association areas.
14 The Neuroscience of Body Image Anorexic patients fMRI ; Neuropsychol 2008
16 The Neuroscience of Body Image Self versus other images10 AN women, 10 normal controls.Difference: no activation of the insula and the attentional areas of brain when viewing selfPrior study showed activation of amygdala in AN patientsRole of the amygdala and insular cortexAN suppress emotional & perceptual processing
17 The Neuroscience of Body Image 13 men and 13 womenleft amygdala activated only in womenleft prefrontal cortex and hippocampus activated only in menShirao et al, 2005
21 The Neuroscience of Body Image 1998 metanalysis of 222 studies over 50 years Feingold & Mazella, 1998Pre-1970, 70s, 80s, 90sAges 12-14, 14-16, 16-18, 18-23, 23-35, >35N= 37,627Results:body satisfaction: men vs womenMen vs women, self assesment on looks“The analysis shows dramatic increases in the numbers of womenamong individuals who have poor body image. Moreover, these trends were found across multiple conceptualizations of body image, including self-judgments of physical attractiveness.”
22 The Neuroscience of Body Image 54 cases of eating disorders associated with brain lesionsSimple changes occur w hypothalamic lesionsAN and BN type changes occur with right frontal and temporal damageUher & Treasure, J Neurol Neurosurg 2005