Presentation on theme: "Marketing Research and Information Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Marketing Research and Information Systems Chapter 4Marketing Research and Information Systems
2 The Importance of Information Companies need information about their:Marketing environmentCompetitionCustomer needsManagers don’t need more information, they need better information.
3 What is a Marketing Information System (MIS)? A MIS consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers.The MIS helps managers to:Assess Information Needs,Develop Needed Information,Distribute Information.
5 Functions of a MIS: Developing Information Information Needed by Managers Can be Obtained From:Internal DataComputerized Collection of Information from Data Sources (i.e. Accounting) Within the Company.MarketingResearchDesign, Collection, Analysis, and Reporting of Data about a Specific Marketing Situation Facing the Organization.IntelligenceCollection and Analysis of Publicly Available Information about Competitors and theMarketing Environment (i.e. Technological).
6 Customer Information Comment cards Registration-membership Disguised/mystery shoppersEmployeesCompany recordsExit interviewsFollow up phone calls
7 Functions of a MIS: Distributing Information Distributes Routine Information forDecision MakingInformation Must be Distributedto the Right Managers at the Right Time.Distributes NonroutineInformation for SpecialSituations
8 The Marketing Research Process (Fig. 4.2) Implementingthe researchplan -- collectingand analyzingthe dataDefining theproblem andresearchobjectivesDeveloping theresearch planfor collectinginformationInterpretingand reportingthe findings
9 Marketing Research Process Step 1 Marketing Research Process Step 1. Defining the Problem & Research ObjectivesExploratoryResearchGathers preliminary informationthat will help define the problemand suggest hypotheses.DescriptiveResearchDescribes things as marketpotential for a product or thedemographics and consumers’attitudes.CausalResearchTest hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships.Tests hypotheses about cause-
10 Marketing Research Process Step 2. Develop the Research Plan Research plan development follows these steps:Determining Specific Information NeedsGathering Secondary informationPlanning Primary Data Collection
11 Examples Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined)“Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more ofwe don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package?”competitor’s product?”“Would people be interested “Which of two advertisingin our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?”in our product?”possible situation
12 Develop the Research Plan Gathering Secondary Information Information That Already Exists Somewhere.+ Obtained More Quickly, Lower Cost.- Might Not be Usable Data.SecondaryBoth Must Be:RelevantAccurateCurrentImpartialInformation Collected for the Specific Purpose at Hand.PrimaryFor ad, click object:
13 Develop the Research Plan Planning Primary Data Collection Observational ResearchGathering data by observing people,actions and situations(Exploratory)Research ApproachesSurvey ResearchAsking individuals about attitudes, preferences orbuying behaviors(Descriptive)Most Widely Used FormExperimental ResearchUsing groups of people todetermine cause-and-effectrelationships(Causal)
14 Develop the Research Plan Planning Primary Data Collection Contact Methods (Table 4.3)
15 Develop the Research Plan Planning Primary Data Collection Probability orNon-probabilitysampling?Sampling PlansWho is to besurveyed?(What SamplingUnit?)Sample -representativesegment of thepopulationHow should thesample bechosen?How manyshould besurveyed?
16 Develop the Research Plan Planning Primary Data Collection Research InstrumentsQuestionnaireWhat questions to ask?Form of each question?Closed-endOpen-endWording?Ordering?Mechanical DevicesPeople MetersSupermarket ScannersGalvanometerTachistoscopeEye Cameras
17 Research Problem Areas 1. Making assumptions2. Lack of Qualitative information3. Failing to look at segments within a sample4. Improper use of sophisticated statistical analysis5. Sample is not representative of the population6. Using biased questions in surveys
18 Development of questions 1 Development of questions 1. Every question should focus on a topic and measure what you want it to measure.Wrong: Which restaurant do you like the best?Right: Which of these restaurants you be most likely to choose for a casual dinner?Wrong: When do you usually go to work?Right: What time do you ordinarily leave home for work?
19 2. Questions should be brief Wrong: Can you tell me how many children you have, whether they are girls or boys, and how old they are?Right: What is the age and gender of your children?
20 3. Use vocabulary the respondent will understand Wrong: Are you an exurbanite?Right: What is your zip code?
21 4. Question must be applicable to the respondent Wrong: How long does it take you to find a parking place after you arrive at the restaurant?Right: If you drive to the restaurant, how long does it take you to find a parking place after you arrive at the restaurant?Might use a screening question first - Do you usually drive to the restaurant. Yes___ No____, If Yes …….
22 5. Avoid using examples that can introduce bias Wrong: Do you eat lamb chop ribs, even thought they contain a lot of fat?Right: How likely are you to order lamb chop when you dine out? Perhaps use this with a 7 point scale.
23 6. Make sure the respondent can answer the question Wrong: How many times did you dine out last year?Right: How many times did you dine out at a fast food restaurant during the last 2 weeks?
24 7. Avoid ambiguous wordsWrong: About what time do you ordinarily eat dinner?Right: About what time do you dine in the evening?Avoid; sometimes, frequently, usually
25 8. Avoid double barreled questions Wrong: Do you dine out regularly because it is as cheap as eating at home?Right: Do you dine out regularly? Why or why not?
26 9. Scales- Mutually exclusive – Collectively exhaustive 0-10___, 10-15___ not mutually exclusive5-10____, 11-15___, 15+____, not collectively exhaustive
27 Marketing Research Process Step 3. Implementing the Research Plan Collecting theDataMost Expensive & Subject to ErrorResearch PlanProcessing theDataAnalyzing theData
28 Marketing Research Process Step 4. Interpreting and Reporting Findings Step 1. Interpret the FindingsResearcher Should Present Important Findings that are Useful in the Major Decisions Faced by Management.Step 2. Draw ConclusionsStep 3. Report to Management
29 Review of Concept Connections Explain the importance of information to the company.Define the marketing information system and discuss its parts.Outline the steps in the marketing research process.Distinguish among exploratory, descriptive, and causal research.Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of collecting information.Discuss the issues for developing survey and collecting data