Presentation on theme: "Living in the Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Living in the Environment Water PollutionG. Tyler Miller’sLiving in the EnvironmentChapter 20
2 Types and Sources of Water Pollution Point sourcesNonpoint sourcesWaterQualityGood8-9Do (ppm) at 20˚CSlightlypollutedModeratelyHeavilyGravely6.7-8Below 4.5Below 4Biological oxygen demandWater quality indication of what beneficial uses of water- spawning, recreation, swimming,drinking.Water qualityPg. 535
3 Point and Nonpoint Sources Urban streetsSuburban developmentWastewater treatment plantRural homesCroplandFactoryAnimal feedlotPOINT SOURCES
4 Water pollution Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa, Parasitic worms Oxygen demanding substancesInorganic plant nutrientsOrganic chemicalsSediment or suspended matterThermal pollutionGenetic pollutionBacteria virusesEat oxygen, phosphates, heat, introduction of non native speciesTable 19-2 tells all the things from bacteria,…vomiting, diarreha,dehydration
5 Biological Magnification Rainbow smelt1.04 ppmZooplankton0.123 ppmPhytoplanktonppmWaterppmHerring gull124 ppmLake trout4.83 ppmHerring gull eggsWhy we need good water quality. Higher in food chain means more concentrated is contamination. Where are we on the food chain. Why Audobuan society devotes money to water quality. To protect birds.
7 Pollution of Lakes Eutrophication Aging of lakes Fig .22.7, p. 499 Discharge of untreatedmunicipal sewage(nitrates and phosphates)Nitrogen compoundsproduced by carsand factoriesDischarge of treated(primary and secondarytreatment:nitrates and phosphates)Discharge ofdetergents( phosphates)Natural runoff(nitrates andphosphatesManure runoffFrom feedlotsPhosphates,ammonia)Dissolving ofnitrogen oxides(from internal combustionengines and furnaces)Runoff and erosion(from from cultivation,mining, construction,and poor land use)Runoff from streets,lawns, and constructionlots (nitrates andphosphates)Lake ecosystemnutrient overloadand breakdown ofchemical cyclingAging of lakesFig .22.7, p. 499
8 Solutions to better water quality Drainage Area Management PlansAgriculture plots1987 Water Quality ActDAMP- street sweeping, stenciling, public education-Agriculture plots not on steep slope leads to water or have some sort of buffer zone.1987 Water Quality Act--Main goals to make U.S. waters safe for fishing and swimming. Restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of nations waters. 1995 EPA developed discharge trading policy. Much like the sulfur dioxide trading policy for air pollution. Industrial plants to sell excess credits. Good news--Fishable and swimmable 36%®62% bad news-antiquated sewage systems--Earth Tech fund--build and maintain.
9 Contaminant plume moves with the groundwater LeakingtankAquiferWatertableBedrockFigure 21.8Natural capital degradation: groundwater contamination from a leaking gasoline tank. As the contaminated water spreads from its source in a widening plume, it can be extracted by wells used to provide water for drinking and irrigation.GroundwaterflowFree gasolinedissolves ingroundwater(dissolvedphase)Gasolineleakage plume(liquid phase)Migratingvapor phaseWater wellContaminant plume moveswith the groundwaterFig
12 Fig. 20-15 Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks, toxic chemicals,and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries.CitiesToxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters;Urban sprawlBacteria and viruses fromsewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish bedsConstruction sitesSediments are washed intowaterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight.FarmsRunoff of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus.Red tidesExcess nitrogen causesexplosive growth oftoxicmicroscopic algae,poisoning fish andmarine mammals.Closedshellfish bedsClosedbeachOxygen-depletedzoneToxic sedimentsChemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, andaccumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders.Figure 21.10Natural capital degradation: residential areas, factories, and farms all contribute to the pollution of coastal waters and bays. According to the UN Environment Programme, coastal water pollution costs the world $16 billion annually—$731,000 a minute—due to ill health and premature death.Stop 10:30Oxygen-depleted zoneSedimentation and algaeovergrowth reduce sunlight,kill beneficial sea grasses, useup oxygen, and degrade habitat.Healthy zoneClear, oxygen-richwaters promote growthof plankton and sea grasses,and support fish.FigFig , p. 505
13 Reducing Water Pollution through Sewage Treatment Primary and Secondary sewage treatment.Figure 20-19
14 Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage (45 centimeterlayer of limestonegravel coated withdecomposing bacteriaFirst concrete poolSecond concrete poolSewageWetland typeplantsTreatedwater
15 Global Outlook: Stream Pollution in Developing Countries Water in many of central China's rivers are greenish black from uncontrolled pollution by thousands of factories.Figure 20-7
16 Case Study: India’s Ganges River: Religion, Poverty, and Health Religious beliefs, cultural traditions, poverty, and a large population interact to cause severe pollution of the Ganges River in India.Very little of the sewage is treated.Hindu believe in cremating the dead to free the soul and throwing the ashes in the holy Ganges.Some are too poor to afford the wood to fully cremate.Decomposing bodies promote disease and depletes DO.
17 Case Study: India’s Ganges River: Religion, Poverty, and Health Daily, more than 1 million Hindus in India bathe, drink from, or carry out religious ceremonies in the highly polluted Ganges River.Stop 1:00
18 Drinking Water Quality Bottled waterSafe Drinking Water ActEPA established national drinking water standards called maximum contaminant levels–System of Long Beach- groundwater pumped to Redondo and spring, treated, pumped back out to residences. Usually most safe because it is tested.Privately owned wells are not required to meet test standards.1/3 of bottled water contaminated with bacteria- not required to do testing. Not required to test like federal government- IBWA International bottle water association.7 million illnesses and 1200 deaths in the U.S. per year .Maximum contaminant levels
19 Is Bottled Water the Answer? Some bottled water is not as pure as tap water and costs much more.1.4 million metric tons of plastic bottles are thrown away.Fossil fuels are used to make plastic bottles.The oil used to produce plastic bottles in the U.S. each year would fuel 100,000 cars.
20 Using Laws to Protect Drinking Water The U.N. estimates that 5.6 million Americans drink water that does not meet EPA standards.1 in 5 Americans drinks water from a treatment plant that violated one or more safety standard.
21 • Minimize your use of pesticides. What Can You Do?Water Pollution• Fertilize garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizer.• Minimize your use of pesticides.• Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides near a body of water.• Grow or buy organic foods.• Do not drink bottled water unless tests show that your tap water is contaminated. Merely refill and reuse plastic bottles with tap water.• Compost your food wastes.Figure 21.19Individuals matter: ways to help reduce water pollution. QUESTION: Which three of these actions do you think are the most important?• Do not use water fresheners in toilets.• Do not flush unwanted medicines down the toilet.• Do not pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, antifreeze, or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground.
22 Roger RosenblattIt is a hard truth to swallow, but nature does not care if we live or die. We cannot survive without the oceans, for example, but they can do just fine without us.End chapter 20