4 A. How does water travel from one sphere to the next? Evaporation: occurs as liquid water gains energy from the sun and changes states into a gas.2. (Evapo)Transpiration: is the process in which plants release water vapor into the air.3. Condensation & Precipitation occurs when water vapor cools, energy is lost & changes states back into a liquid.
5 B. Subsurface Zones of Ground Water 1. Zone of Aeration is located just below the surface where thespaces between the soil particles are filled with air.Zone of Saturation is where the spaces between the soil particles are filled with water.3. The Water Table is the interface between the two zones.
6 4. Capillary Fringe occurs where water is drawn up against gravity into the zone of aeration 5. Impermeable rock is the solid bedrock that does not allow water to pass through it.6. Regolith is loose soil or gravel that is not solid rock yet.
7 C. Capillary Action or (Capillarity): is the process by which water is drawn up into pore spaces due to the attractive force between water molecules and surrounding materials.1. PARTICLE SIZE effects the percentage of capillary action.Smaller particles will have greater capillarity
8 Movement of Water in the lithosphere Water can run-off the ground or infiltrate into the soil & bedrock.Run-off; is water that does not sink intothe land but flows along the surface.2. Infiltration; the process in which water sinks into the ground.
9 Factors controlling the rate of Run-off E. Runoff occurs when the soil does not allow rain to infiltrate the ground.Factors controlling the rate of Run-off1. Impermeable Soil or Bedrock.2. Soil is already saturated w/water.3. Rainfall or spring melt exceeds rate of infiltration.4. Slope is too steep or lacks vegetation.
10 Infiltrated Groundwater F. The rate of Infiltration intothe ground is controlled by…PorosityPermeabilityGravityInfiltrated GroundwaterPorosity is the percentage of open pore space in a sample of soil.100 cm3 sample of soilcan hold 45 cm3 ofWater.Porosity =
11 Factors affecting Porosity 1. Particle shape:Rounded particles have more porosity than angular shaped particles.2. Packing:Loosely packed particles have more porosity than closely packed particles.
12 Particle size:Rounded particles of differentsizes have the same porosity .4. Sorting:Porosity of mixed (unsorted)sediment size particles will beLow. Porosity of well (sorted)size particles will be high.
14 Permeability is the rate at which water will infiltrate (pass through) soil or bedrock.Factors Affecting Permeability1. Pore size (spaces between soil particles), as pore size increases the permeability of the soil will increase.
15 2. Interconnections (cracks), as number and size of soil passages increases the permeability increase.
16 3. Impermeable rock will not allow water to infiltrate into the ground
17 Permeability and Porosity is reduced in urban settings. Infiltration decreased by cement .Run-off increases
18 Ground Water Storage and Recharge Aquifer: A bedrock unit in which water is stored.
19 Groundwater Recharge occurs when precipitation is greater then evaporation & can result in a surplus.
20 Groundwater Usage can result in the over consumption of water. During Usage if evaporation is greater then precipitation a deficitwill occur causing a drought.