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Public Private Partnerships in Vocational Education – experiences from Russia and Ukraine Fourth ECA Education Conference Timo Kuusela Tirana, 26 October.

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Presentation on theme: "Public Private Partnerships in Vocational Education – experiences from Russia and Ukraine Fourth ECA Education Conference Timo Kuusela Tirana, 26 October."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Private Partnerships in Vocational Education – experiences from Russia and Ukraine Fourth ECA Education Conference Timo Kuusela Tirana, 26 October 2007

2 2 Conceptual issues: Reasons for partnership Government objectives for VET Policy instruments and reasons of governments for PPP Funding Providers Evolution of PPPs in Russia and Ukraine Constraints Socio-economic development vs. VET strategies PPP examples Future developments and options

3 3 Partnership - based on mutual interest, benefit and trust Reasons for partnership: Same background Common characteristics Common failings Similar degrees of funding Need for an integrated approach – Regulation – Cost sharing

4 4 Objectives for Government in vocational education Access/equity: people with varying financial resources and needs have access to VET Quality: appropriate quality standards are attained Social/economic: public resources are used to support employment, economic development and creation of a well-educated community

5 5 Policy Instruments Funding: Governments can purchase goods and services for people Ownership: Governments can create and own the providers of services Regulation: Governments can enhance or obstruct certain developments Information: Governments can provide information and guidance to allow for informed choice

6 6 Rational of government for PPP Key questions about expenditure: The appropriate level of funding Availability and targeting of public funding If public funding is directed at students or institutions (demand vs. supply) If public funding is available for public or private institutions Should the government pay (for everything)?

7 7 Rational of government for PPP Rules and regulations on training providers: How providers are established How providers are resourced Fiscal treatment of providers How providers are governed and managed The operational flexibility of providers Accountability of providers The review process and quality assurance of providers

8 8 Constraints to implementation of PPP in Russia and Ukraine Lack of traditions Political sensibilities Capacity of the government to develop PPPs – ability of the private sector to act in tandem and in a coordinated way Lack of resources Bureaucracy and absence of legal framework enhancing partnerships Lack of incentives from both sides- inert VET systems Limited demand and low prestige

9 9 Trends and government strategies in VET In 1990ies: Education policy priorities in general and higher education Limited socio-economic pressures on VET programmes No need for change Survival strategy “ keep the VET system alive” ► survival game of schools: Obsolete professions Underfinancing Worsening infrastructure, relevance and image (Increasing) social function Nevertheless, various initiatives at school level

10 10 Trends and government strategies in VET In 2000 - >: Social partnership appears in rhetorics of VET community Decentralisation from national to regional level (Russia) Gradual upgrade of existing infrastructure and institutions without major changes in objectives of VET or involvement of stakeholders Government remains the main provider and financier of (initial) vocational education Increasing pressures from economy and labour market (lately)

11 11 PPP examples 1. VET Advisory Councils in the regions (since 1998 in Russia) demand analysis -> better planning of VET delivery 2. School Boards of Trustees (in Russia) Upgrade of equipment and facilities Practical training in enterprises Joint curriculum development Placement of VET teachers in enterprises No real management boards 3. Enterprises provide work-based learning opportunities (in Ukraine) around 700 licensed and accredited providers (1036 public VET schools)

12 12 PPP examples 4. Activation of Employer Organisations Initiative of the Federation of Restaurateurs and Hoteliers (Russia) – New qualification framework for the catering sector – New occupational standards developed by employers National Qualification Agency (NARK) established by the Russian Union of Employers and Industrialists – Coordinates and sets the procedures for the development of occupational standards in economic sectors – Providers guidance and information on qualifications – Maintains the national registry of occupational standards – Endorses the national education standards (upon request of the Ministry of Education) Cooperation agreements with education authorities 5. Initiatives of employers on co-ownership and co-management of public training institutions – legal barriers yet to be solved

13 13 Lessons learnt so far 1. A lot of efforts based on enthusiasm and done at school level – with varied success 2. Limited effect on systemic level 3. Existing or emerging partnership initiatives are yet to be institutionalised and supported by adequate regulatory framework 4. Private sector contributes financially but not involved in governance or management of VET

14 14 Future vision to increase PPPs 1. Increasing socio-economic pressures will push the governments to change the paradigm of VET and increase PPPs Need for new skills strategies Demographic situation, etc 2. Changes in governance and financing of VET Co-financing and co-management of public training institutions New financing schemes (from input to output financing) Further decentralisation Increasing institutional autonomy 3. Alternative ways to organise VET Work-based learning (could be co-financed and organised by the governments) 4. Empowerment of social partners to increase the quality and relevance of VET (NQF examples)

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