2 The Baby ArrivesAt birth, a newborn goes through many physical changes that are necessary for survival.During the pregnancy, the baby’s lungs are collapsed. Oxygen is delivered through the mother’s blood, and the lungs are not used.During delivery, the lungs fill with amniotic fluid that was in the baby’s trachea.This is the tube that delivers air from the mouth to the lungs.Most of the fluid is squeezed out during the trip during the birth canal.What remains is suctioned out immediately after birth.Newborns usually breathe naturally after birth, if not medical personnel may assist.
3 The Baby ArrivesOnce the lungs have begun to take in oxygen, the baby’s circulatory system changes.Blood now circulates to and from the lungs, rather than bypassing them.The heart changes too.The heart must pump harder to get more blood to the lungs.Two small openings in the heart begin to close.A new type of hemoglobin developsHemoglobin is a part of the red blood cell that delivers oxygen to the body.
4 The Baby ArrivesThe umbilical cord once provided the baby with nourishment and oxygen.The cord is no longer neededWithin a few minutes of birth, the cord stops pulsing with the mother’s heartbeat and begins to shrink.The cord is clamped and cut off, leaving a small stump at the baby’s navel.The stump will fall off in the first few weeks.
5 The Newborn’s Appearance The newborns head is wobbly and looks too large for the body.The baby’s skull may appear pointed or lopsided due to the birthing process.A baby’s skull bones are not fully fused togetherThe skill has soft spots, or fontanels.Fontanel: is an open space found on the baby’s head where the bones are not yet joined.Just above the forehead and towards the backAs the baby develops the bones will fuse together.
6 The Newborn’s Appearance Babies’ circulatory system takes time to adjustFingers and toes may be cooler than the rest of the body for the first 24 hours.Keeping babies wrapped in blankets make them feel more secure.A knitted cap keeps their head warmSome babies, especially premies have lanugo.Lanugo: is fine, downy hair growing on the newborns forehead, backs, and shouldersDisappears quickly.
7 The Newborn’s Appearance Some babies, especially premies have lanugo.Lanugo: is fine, downy hair growing on the newborns forehead, backs, and shouldersDisappears quickly.While in the uterus, the baby is floating in amniotic fluid and is covered in vernix.Vernix: is a thick, white, pasty substance made up of the fetus’ old skin cells and the secretions of skin glands.Acts as protection against exposure to the amniotic fluid.Any remaining vernix is washed off during the baby’s first bath.
8 The Newborn’s Appearance Many babies have tiny, white bumps called milia, or baby acne on their nose and cheeks.They are plugged oil ducts caused by stimulation from the mothers hormones, which remain in the baby’s system for a short time after delivery.Should disappear in a week or so after birth.The face of the newborn may be swollen or puffyTypically, newborns have fat cheeks; short, flat noses; and receding chins.The small feature make it easier for the baby to nurseAt birth, babies’ eyes are nearly adult sized.
9 Examining the NewbornWhen babies are born, their condition is evaluated using the Apgar Scale.Apgar Scale: is a system of rating the physical condition of a newborn baby.5 factors are checked again 5 minutes after birthHeart RateBreathingMuscle ToneResponse to StimulationSkin ColorThe baby is also given other tests soon after birth.
11 First Exam The Apgar scale rates each of the five areas from 0-2. A normal score is in the 6-10 range with 10 being a perfect score.Nurses examine the baby for any conditions that may require special care.They weight, measure, and dry the baby.They apply amitotic to the baby’s eyes to prevent infectionThe baby often receives an injection of vitamin K to prevent a rare bleeding disorder.
12 After Birth Shortly after birth, certain records are created. The baby’s foot is printed in ink for public record.Plastic bands are fastened to the mothers wrist, to the baby’s wrist or ankle, and to the wrist of someone of the mothers choosing.The bands having matching numbers and are checked each time the baby leaves the mothers room.
13 Later TestsMost newborns receive at least one and often two hearing screenings.Blood is taken from the umbilical cord immediately after birth to check the baby’s blood type and screen for certain diseases.While the baby is still in the hospital, blood will be taken from the heel to test for certain disease and disorders.If the baby is born at home, the baby should still receive the same tests.Parents should plan ahead and discuss with their doctor.