Myers in Modules, Module 7 Conception : 2 weeks: Zygote then blastomere (Stem cells) – low survival rate of zygotes (<50%) – rapid cell division in the first week – then cells begin to differentiate in shape – ~ 10 days zygote attaches to uterine wall; – placenta develops (outer cells in the balstomere which transforms into a blood filled organ to feed and remove waste from foetus) Images from www.cmste.uncc.eduwww.cmste.uncc.edu
Myers in Modules, Module 7 2-8 weeks: Embryo – formation of body organs begins – heart beats; liver produces red blood cells Images from www.cmste.uncc.edu
Myers in Modules, Module 7 9 weeks- birth: Foetus: – further growth and differentiation – sensory reflexes develop by 9 weeks – stomach forms at 6 months Ultra-sound Imagery
Myers in Modules, Module 7 SENSATION in Womb Immediately after Birth, newborn prefers sound of Mother’s voice over any other. Newborn prefers a rhyme recited by Mother in the 2 months pre-partum.
Myers in Modules, Module 7 Teratogens: chemical or environmental agents which cause prenatal damage. e.g. Viruses: Rubella- early exposure serious HIV- 20-50% may pass on virus pre-natally or during delivery e.g. Alcohol: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Effects – Nicotine – Radiation The Vulnerable Fetus
Myers in Modules, Module 7 The Competent Newborn
Myers in Modules, Module 7 Competent Newborn Rooting Reflex: searching for nipple stimulated by touching cheek Sucking Reflex – even on finger Infants are born with preferences for sights and sounds that stimulate social responsiveness Within days, babies prefer smell of mother’s body Will turn towards familiar voice of mother and suck more vigorously on a pacifier, when it is heard.
Myers in Modules, Module 7 Newborns’ Preference for Faces Newborns prefer left pattern and spent twice as much time staring at it.
Myers in Modules, Module 7 Research Strategies with Infants
Myers in Modules, Module 7 Habituation: is the decline in response to stimulus over time. Presented with pictures of a cat, a dob or hybrids of these animals with cat’s head on dog’s body. 4-month olds had stronger and longer interest in the hybrid images. Presentation of round, striped form: time spent looking at one pattern declined frm 40 sec to 1 sec over 8 presentations. Turn the form 90 degrees and infants once again had interest and looked 3x longer Understanding the infant’s thinking