# Vapor and Combined Power Cycles

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Vapor and Combined Power Cycles
Chapter 10

Introduction to Power and Refrigeration Cycles
Two important areas of application for thermodynamics are Power Generation and Refrigeration. Both power generation and refrigeration are usually accomplished by a system that operates on a thermodynamics cycle. Thermodynamics cycles can be divided into two generation categories: Power Cycles Refrigeration Cycles

Introduction to Power and Refrigeration Cycles
The devices or systems used to produce a net power output are often called engines and the thermodynamics cycles they operate on are called power cycle. The devices or systems use to produce refrigeration are called refrigerators , air conditioners or heat pumps and the cycles they operates on are called refrigeration cycles.

The Carnot Vapor Cycle A steady-flow Canort cycle executed with the saturation dome of a pure substance is shown in figure. The Carnot cycle is not a suitable model for vapor power cycle because it cannot be approximated in practice.

Rankine Cycle The impracticalities associated with Carnot cycle can be eliminated by: superheating the steam in the boiler. condensing it completely in the condenser. Such cycle is called the Rankine cycle, which is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants. The ideal Rankine cycle dose not involve any internal irreversibilities

The Rankine Cycle Consists of the following four processes:
1 – 2: Isentropic compression in pump (compressors) 2 – 3: Constant pressure heat addition in boiler 3 – 4: Isentropic expansion in turbine 4 – 1: Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser

Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle:
The steady flow equation per unit mass of steam reduces to Pump where Boiler Turbine

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined as
Condenser The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined as where

Deviation of actual vapor power cycle from idealized ones
The actual vapor power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle, as a result of irreversibilites in various components. Fluid friction and heat loss to the surroundings are the two common sources of irreversibilites.

Fluid friction causes pressure drop in the boiler, the condenser and the piping between various components. Also the pressure at the turbine inlet is somewhat lower than that at the boiler exit due to the pressure drop in the connecting pipes. To compensate for these pressure drops, the water must be pumped to a sufficiently higher pressure than the ideal cycle. This requires a large pump and larger work input to the pump.

The other major source of irreversibility is the heat loss from the steam to the surrounding as the steam flows through various components. Particular important are the irreversibilites occurring within the pump and the turbine. A pump require a greater work input, and a turbine produces a smaller work output as a result of irreversibilties. Under the ideal condition the flow through these devices is isentropic.

The deviation of actual pumps and turbine from the isentropic ones can be accurately accounted by isentropic efficiencies, defined as Pump Turbine

Increasing the efficiency of the Rankine cycle?
Three ways: Lowering the condenser pressure (Lowers Tlow, av). Superheating the steam to high temperatures (Increases Thigh, av). Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh, av)

Lowering the condenser pressure (Lowers Tlow, av)
Lowering the operating pressure of the condenser automatically lower the temperature of the steam, and thus the temperature at which heat is rejected. The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on the Rankine cycle efficiency is illustrated in figure

Superheating the steam to high temperatures (Increases Thigh, av)
The average temperature at which heat is added to the steam can be increased without increasing the boiler pressure by superheating the steam to high temperatures.

Superheating the steam to high temperatures (Increases Thigh, av)
Superheating the steam to higher temperatures has very desirable effect: It decreases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit as can be seen in T-s diagram. The temperature to which steam can be superheated is limited by metallurgical consideration.

Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh, av)
The average temperature during the heat addition process is to increase the operating pressure of the boiler, which automatically raises the temperature at which boiling take place. This, in turn, raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam and thus raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh, av)
This, in turn, raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam and thus raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
The efficiency of the Rankine cycle can increase by expanding the steam in the turbine in two stages, and reheat it in between. In other words, modify the simple ideal Rankine cycle with reheat process. Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive moisture problem in turbines, and it is commonly used in modern steam power plants.

The T-s diagram and the schematic of the ideal reheat Rankine cycle are shown below.

The ideal reheat Rankine cycle differs from the simple ideal Rankine cycle in that the expansion process take place in two stages. In first stage (the high-pressure turbine), steam is expanded isentropically to an intermediate pressure and sent back to the boiler where it is reheated at constant pressure, usually to the inlet temperature of the first turbine stage. Steam then expands isentropically in the second stage (low-pressure turbine) to the condenser pressure.

Thus the total heat input and the total work output for a reheat cycle become

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
The T-s diagram for the Rankine cycle shows that heat transferred to the working fluid during process 2-2’ at a relatively low temperature. This lowers the average heat-addition temperature and thus the cycle efficiency.

There are two type of feedwater Heaters
Another way of increasing the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is by regeneration. During a regeneration process, liquid water (feedwater) leaves the pump is heated by steam bled off the turbine at some intermediate pressure in devices called feedwater heaters. There are two type of feedwater Heaters Open Feedwater Heater Closed Feedwater Heater

Open Feedwater Heater An open (or direct-contact) feedwater heater is basically a mixing chamber, where the steam extracted from the turbine mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump. Ideally, the mixture leaves the heater as a saturated liquid at the heater pressure.

The heat and work interaction of a regenerative Rankine cycle with one feedwater heater can be expressed per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler as follows: where

Closed Feedwater Heaters
the closed feedwater heater in which heat is transferred from the extracted steam to the feedwater without any mixing taking place. The two streams now can be at different pressure, since they do not mix.

Second – Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycle
The exergy destruction per unit mass for a steady – flow system can be expressed, in the rate form, as: The exergy destruction associated with a cycle depends on the magnitude of the heat transfer with the high and low temperature reservoirs involved and their temperatures. It can be expressed on a unit – mass basis as

For a cycle that involves heat transfer only wit a source at TH and sink at TL, the exergy destruction becomes The exergy of a fluid stream  at any state can be determine from

Cogeneration The production of more than one useful form of energy (such as process heat and electric power) from the same energy source is called cogeneration. Cogeneration plants produce electric power while meeting the process heat requirements of certain industrial processes.

Ideal Cogeneration Cycle Plant
Utilization Factor All the energy transferred to the steam in the boiler is utilized as either process heat or electric power.