21 NicheThe full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions.
22 Points to PonderIn your own words, can you define and provide examples of biosphere, biome, ecosystem, population, species, habitat and niche.In your own words, can you describe biotic and abiotic factors that affect land and aquatic biomes and give examples of each.
23 Learning TargetI can explain how energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.I can diagram the flow of energy using food webs, food chains and pyramids of energy, biomass and numbers.
24 Energy Flow The sun is the main source of energy for life on earth. < 1 % of all sunlight that reaches earth is used by living organisms.What happens to the rest?
26 Producers or Autotrophs Use sunlight or chemicals to make their own food.Examples:
27 Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Performed on land by plants and in water by algae.
28 Can organisms make their own food without the aid of sunlight? Chemosynthesis: using chemical energy to make carbohydrates.Usually performed bacteria found in harsh environmentsOcean vents, volcanoes, hot-acidic environments
29 Consumers or heterotrophs: Must get their energy by eating other organisms Herbivores OmnivoresDecomposersCarnivores Detritivores
36 Points to PonderWith a partner, demonstrate that you can create a food chain and a food web.With a partner, demonstrate that you understand an ecological pyramid, a pyramid of numbers and a biomass pyramid
37 Learning TargetsI can explain how the amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available matter and energy and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials.I can differentiate between the biogeochemical cycles.
38 Cycles of matterUnlike energy, matter is constantly being recycled in an ecosystem.Known as biogeochemical cycles
40 Water CycleEvaporation—the process by which water changes from liquid form to atmospheric gas.Transpiration—water evaporating from the leaves of plants and entering the atmosphereCondensation—water returning to a liquid state from a gaseous statePrecipitation—water falling from the atmosphere in the form of rain, snow or some other form of liquid or solid.
41 Transpiration The release of water from the leaves of plants. Water is exchanged througha plant’s stomata.Evaporation is the secondprocess that releases waterinto the atmosphere.
44 Nitrogen Cycle All organisms need nitrogen to live. Most abundant gas in atmosphere (80%)Nitrogen gas is unusable for plantsMust be “fixed” or changed into the nitrate or nitrite form by bacteria in the soil. Known as nitrogen fixationOther soil bacteria convert nitrates in to nitrogen gas in process called denitrification.
48 Nutrient LimitationPrimary productivity is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers.Nutrient limitation occurs when a single nutrient is scarce for a particular ecosystem and limits the growth of organisms in that ecosystem.
49 Points to PonderHow is the amount of life any environment can support limited by the available matter and energy and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the residue of dead organic materials?How would you differentiate between the biogeochemical cycles?