# 19.1 Mirrors The smooth surface of the lake reflects light rays so that the observer sees an inverted image of the landscape.

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19.1 Mirrors The smooth surface of the lake reflects light rays so that the observer sees an inverted image of the landscape.

19.1 Mirrors What is the law of reflection? The Law of Reflection The law of reflection states that the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.

19.1 Mirrors The angle of incidence is the angle the incident ray makes with a line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the mirror. The angle of reflection is the angle the reflected ray makes with the perpendicular line. The Law of Reflection

19.1 Mirrors The study of optics assumes that light is made up of rays that travel in straight lines. A ray diagram shows how rays change direction when they strike mirrors and pass through lenses. A mirror reflects an incident ray, making a reflected ray. The Law of Reflection

19.1 Mirrors The flat (plane) mirror and the mirror-like lake surface both obey the law of reflection. The Law of Reflection Incident ray Angle of incidence Angle of refraction Refracted ray

19.1 Mirrors What type of image is produced by a plane mirror? Plane Mirrors A plane mirror always produces a virtual image.

19.1 Mirrors A virtual image is a copy of an object formed at the location from which the light rays appear to come. A mirror with a flat surface is a plane mirror. When you look into a plane mirror, you see your reversed reflection—a right-left reversed image of yourself. Plane Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors To produce your image in a mirror, rays of light strike you and reflect. The reflected rays strike the mirror and are reflected to your eyes. The rays appear to come from behind the mirror. Your image appears the same distance behind the mirror as you are in front, and the image is right side up. Plane Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors Virtual images such as this cannot be projected onto a screen. Note also how that light rays from the object (the girl) reflect from the mirror’s surface and obey the law of reflection. Plane Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors What type of image is produced by convex and concave mirrors? Concave and Convex Mirrors Concave mirrors can form either real or virtual images. Convex mirrors always cause light rays to spread out and can only form virtual images.

19.1 Mirrors Concave Mirrors When the inside surface of a curved mirror is the reflecting surface, the mirror is a concave mirror. The curvature of the reflecting surface causes the rays to come together. The point at which the light rays meet is called the focal point. Concave mirrors in automobile headlights and flashlights direct the illumination from a light bulb into a beam. Concave and Convex Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors The type of image formed depends upon where the object is in relation to a concave mirror. When the object is farther from the mirror than the focal point, the reflected rays meet in front of the mirror to form a real image. A real image is a copy of an object formed at the point where light rays actually meet. Unlike a virtual image, a real image can be viewed on a surface such as a screen. Concave and Convex Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors When the object is closer to the mirror than the focal point is, the reflected rays spread out and appear to come from behind the mirror to form a virtual image. Concave and Convex Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors A.Parallel incoming rays are reflected through the focal point of a concave mirror. Concave and Convex Mirrors Focal point Concave mirror

19.1 Mirrors B.Real images form when the reflected light rays converge. Concave and Convex Mirrors Focal point Concave mirror

19.1 Mirrors C.Virtual images form when the reflected rays appear to come from a point behind the mirror. Concave and Convex Mirrors Focal point Concave mirror

19.1 Mirrors Convex Mirrors When the outside surface of a curved mirror is the reflecting surface, the mirror is a convex mirror. The curvature of the convex mirror causes the reflected rays to spread out. The image formed by a convex mirror is always upright and smaller than the object. A convex mirror shows a wide angle of view. Convex mirrors can only form virtual images. Concave and Convex Mirrors

19.1 Mirrors Concave and Convex Mirrors A.Parallel incoming rays are reflected away from one another by a convex mirror. Focal point Convex mirror

19.1 Mirrors B.The virtual images are upright and smaller than the object. Concave and Convex Mirrors Focal point Convex mirror

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 1.The image in a plane mirror appears to be a.in front of the mirror. b.behind the mirror. c.in the plane of the mirror. d.perpendicular to the plane of the mirror.

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 1.The image in a plane mirror appears to be a.in front of the mirror. b.behind the mirror. c.in the plane of the mirror. d.perpendicular to the plane of the mirror. ANS:B

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 2.A real image formed by a mirror is a.always right-side up. b.always smaller than the object. c.able to be projected on a screen. d.only formed by convex mirrors.

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 2.A real image formed by a mirror is a.always right-side up. b.always smaller than the object. c.able to be projected on a screen. d.only formed by convex mirrors. ANS:C

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 3.An image of an object, formed by a convex mirror, is always a.upright and smaller than the object. b.upside down and smaller than the object. c.upright and larger than the object. d.upside down and larger than the object.

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 3.An image of an object, formed by a convex mirror, is always a.upright and smaller than the object. b.upside down and smaller than the object. c.upright and larger than the object. d.upside down and larger than the object. ANS:A

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 1.According to the law of reflection, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. True False

19.1 Mirrors Assessment Questions 1.According to the law of reflection, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. True False ANS:T

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