Presentation on theme: "Dr. Frankena: Moral Value & Responsibility"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr. Frankena: Moral Value & Responsibility Need a normative theoryNormative meaning - standard or guideMorally good or bad things are:persons, groups of persons, traits of character, dispositions, emotions, motives, and intentionsNonmorally good or bad things are:physical objects like cars, paintings, knowledge, freedom, government, and so forth.
2 Historically, morality concerned with: Cultivation of certain disposition, or traits of character.virtues - not wholly innate: they must all be acquired, at least in part, by teaching and practice or perhaps by gracehonesty, kindness, conscientiousness.Morality not rules or principles, but rather the cultivation of such dispositions, i.e.., Plato and Aristotle
3 Leslie Stephen: Morality is Internal Moral law is truly a rule of character.Ethics of Virtue:Aretaic JudgmentsActions are secondary, what is important is the motive or trait.motives, intentions, and actions
4 HumeWhen we praise any actions, we regard only the motives that produce them. The external performance has no merit..all virtuous actions derive their true merit only from virtuous motives.In other words, what is important is judgments about agents and their motives o
5 Hume: 3 kinds of ethics of duty Trait EgoismVirtues that are most conducive to one’s own good or welfareTrait UtilitarianismVirtues are those traits that promote the greatest amount of good, orbenevolence is the basic or cardinal moral virtueTrait Deontologicalcertain traits are morally good simply as such
6 Difference between obligation and virtue... Principles of DutyWe ought to promote goodWe ought to treat people equalityWe ought to tell the truthWe ought to be responsibleTrait is a disposition, habit, quality, or trait, which an individual either has or seeks to have.
8 What are the moral virtues? They cannot be derived from one anotherAll other moral virtues can be derived from or shown to be forms of themPlato and Greeks though they were four cardinal virtues:wisdom, courage, temperance, and justiceChristianity has seven:faith, hope, love, prudence, fortitude, temperance, and justice - first three theological, last 4 human
9 Cardinal Virtues - Frankena & Schopenhauer BenevolenceJusticeAll other virtues can be derived from these two.
10 Is morality primarily a following of certain principles or as a cultivation of certain traits. Difficult to know what traits to encourage if we did not subscribe to principles
11 What then would be the difference between a principle of beneficence and the virtue of benevolence.
12 Kant: That Principles without traits are impotent and traits without principles are blind.
13 An Ethics of Virtue: Point of acquiring these virtues not further guidance or instructionnot to tell us what to dobut to ensure that we will do it willinglyMust not only move us to do what we do,They must also tell us what to do
14 Moral Ideal Ways of being rather than doing wanting to be a person of a certain sortwanting to have a certain trait of characterSocrates, Jesus the Christ, Martin Luther King, Mohammed Gandhi
15 Dispositions to be Cultivated Cardinal, First Order Virtues:Benevolence and JusticeCorollaries,Truth, honesty, keeping promises, fidelity, which are all acquired and fostered.Second Order VirtuesConscientiousnessIntellectual TraitsDisposition to find and respect the relevant facts and a disposition to think clearly
17 Should an action be judged right or wrong because of its results; the principle it exemplifies, or because of the motive, intention, or trait of character is good or bad?
18 What is moral? Reasonable view.. is that one’s actions are morally good if it is at least true that, whatever the actual motives in acting, the sense of duty or desire to do the right is so strong that it keeps one trying to do one’s duty.
19 Moral Responsibility Three Kinds of cases for moral responsibility 1) X is a responsible person, meaning to saysomething morally favorable about hischaracter.2) X is and was responsible for a past action3) X is responsible for Y when Y still is tobe done.
20 Case 1: X is responsible In this case, responsible is known to be trustworthy or dependable with soundjudgment.Meaning what morally?
21 Case 2: X is and was responsible for a past action. Responsible is being the source or cause ofsomething happening
22 Case 3: X is responsible for Y to be done. Responsible is the condition of beingaccountable to act without guidance orpersonal authority
23 ResponsibilityIn Case 1 and 3, we are accountable for actions; we have obligations because of previous commitments...hence is a straight normative judgment of obligation.
24 ResponsibilityNormative judgment: making a decision based on a norm or standard. In this case, the standard is based on an obligation to a certain principle (to be responsible) from the value: responsibility
25 Related IssuesCoercionFreedom and ChoiceDeterminism
26 Liberty - choice between alternatives CoercionAbsence of coercionnot only direct by indirect, i.e., modeling, manipulation, that affect alternativesLiberty - choice between alternativesimportance of education enlarges the capacity of choice and decisions. Important precondition of existence of freedom.
27 Free Will and Determinism Free will: you have choices that you can make based on your values.Determinism: every event, including human choices and volitions, is caused by other events and happens as an effect or result of these other events.
28 DeterminismThe general philosophical thesis which states that for everything that ever happens there are conditions that given them nothing else.ethical determinismlogical determinismtheological determinismphysical determinismpsychological determinism
29 Ethical determinismactions are determined by an apparent good..no man can set as the object of his choice something that seems evil or bad to him.opponent:The evident fact of incontinence. A man’s desires or appetites are in conflict with his reason, precisely in the sense that he desires something that is bad for him. Aristotle.
30 Logical DeterminismMen’s wills are fettered, that nothing is real in in their power to alter.Fate determines all. No man’s destiny is in any degree up to him.Everything he ever does is something he could never have avoided..it is idle to speak of free will.
31 Psychological Determinism Christian Theology, a concept arose that a perfectly good god, omniscient, and omnipotent, the entire world and everything in it, down to the minutest detail, are absolutely dependent for existence and character from Him.Divine Power and Predestination.
32 Physical DeterminismEvents are determined by eternal and immutable laws of nature.A move away from people making decisions, or god writing out the decisions to the decisions are really not decisions at all.
33 Psychological Determinism All voluntary human action is caused by the alternate operation of motives, desires, and aversions...which are varieties of physical forces.The immediate cause of a voluntary motion is an act of will, but it is never free, it is caused...by psychological training. Hobbsian thought