The tripartite ‘three parts’ structure of human personality
The earliest part of the human personality THE ID = the biological part (instincts & drives) Present at birth Motivated by the pleasure principle
The second part of the human personality to develop THE EGO (the ‘self’) 1 - 3 years Motivated by the reality principle
The third part of the human personality to develop THE SUPEREGO (the moral part) 3 - 5 years Motivated by the anxiety principle
The psychological apparatus is in conflict ID >>>> EGO <<<< SuperEGO neurotic moral conflict Unconscious CONFLICT can be RESOLVED BY DREAMS NEUROTIC SYMPTOMS DEFENCE MECHANISMS
The psychological apparatus Only the EGO is in the CONSCIOUS mind We can talk about experiences in the conscious mind The ID resides in the UNCONSCIOUS We can’t talk about experiences in the unconscious mind
DEVELOPS during FIVE psychosexual stages of development
The Oral (Birth - 1 year) The Anal (1 - 3 years) The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years) The Latent (6 - puberty) The Genital (adulthood)
The analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy THE CASE STUDY of LITTLE HANS
This is the ONLY case study of a child undertaken by Freud Freud’s ideas about infant sexuality were based on his work with adult women (and his own self analysis)
The longitudinal CASE STUDY (psychoanalytic therapy) was carried out by correspondence and interviews with Hans’ father First reports when Hans was three
Hans was very interested in his ‘widdler’ His mother told him “not to play with your widdler.. or else she would call the doctor to come and cut it off” Hans’ mother threatened to leave him
Hans’ baby sister was born he was told the stork had brought the baby Early jealousy of sister Continued interest in his widdler, according to father his dreams and fantasies were of widdlers and of ‘widdling’
When Hans was five - father wrote to Freud “Hans is afraid of horses, afraid a horse will bite him in the street, this fear seems to be connected to his being frightened by a large penis”
Freud & father try to make sense of what Hans was experiencing and to resolve his phobia of horses Freud noted that Hans’ fear of horses developed after the child had anxiety dreams of losing his mother AND after he has been warned not to play with his widdler
Hans dream of three giraffes The scene in marital bed in the morning The big giraffe = daddy? The crumpled giraffe = mummy? The little giraffe = Hans?
Hans fear of being drowned in the bath Hans began to fear having a bath He was afraid his mother would drown him Freud suggested this was a projection of his unconscious wish that his mother drown his baby sister
Hans dreams about a giraffe were explained as ‘fear of big penis’ (long neck = big penis) Freud theorised that Hans’ fear of horses was really fear of father Horse = symbolic for father
Hans dreamed that a plumber came and gave him a bigger bottom
Freud’s conclusion Little Hans phobia of horses was really fear of father (castration fear) during resolution of the Oedipus Conflict ◦ Fear resolved when Oedipus conflict resolved
Hans is analysed by the father who is emotionally involved Father is biased as he already admires the work of Freud and may have believed that the boy was in the Oedipal (phallic stage) Father ‘put words into Hans’ mouth’
The case study seems to be both scientific evidence and treatment These should be separated because If we ‘treat’ what we are investigating how can it remain unchanged to be investigated?
But … Freud did deal with real people & their problems Not neat & tidy but has “ecological validity”
AND unlike adult ‘case studies’ No searching through ‘past memory’ Hans father simply asked Hans!
Perhaps Hans dreams about widdlers & widdling were caused by his fear that his mother might cut off his penis? But - Freud’s theory was that mothers were the primary love object of little boys, (not that Mother could be feared)
Erich Fromm (& Social Learning Theory) ◦ It was because Hans’ father took such an interest in him, that Hans identified with his father and wished to be like him Bowlby ◦ Hans may have been afraid of being separated from his mother (separation anxiety) thus feared horses (as these were the main mode of transport)
Learning Theory Hans had seen a horse fall down in the street (equivalent to road accident today) So he ‘learned to be’ afraid of horses!
Treatment not very child friendly ◦ (and included leading questions) ◦ Freud’s theory of the Oedipus/Electra conflict is proposed by some psychologists as the reason why people are reluctant to believe children who report sexual abuse
Hans was interviewed when he was 19 He had no recollection of any of the discussions - “No long term effects” ◦ Hans said when he read the case study ◦ “it came as something from the unknown”
List three ways in which people show unconscious wishes in their behaviour How can you criticise Freud’s method of collecting data? What differences are there between the attitudes of Han’s parents and the attitudes of parents today?
The analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy A Longitudinal Case study The Oedipus Conflict & its resolution by psychoanalysis (therapy)