 # Sections 4.1 and 4.2 Overview Random Variables. PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS This chapter will deal with the construction of probability distributions by.

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Sections 4.1 and 4.2 Overview Random Variables

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS This chapter will deal with the construction of probability distributions by combining the methods of Chapter 2 with the those of Chapter 3. Probability Distributions will describe what will probably happen instead of what actually did happen.

COMBINING DESCRIPTIVE METHODS AND PROBABILITIES In this chapter we will construct probability distributions by presenting possible outcomes along with the relative frequencies we expect.

RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS A random variable is a variable (typically represented by x) that has a single numerical value, determined by chance, for each outcome of a procedure. A probability distribution is a graph, table, or formula that gives the probability for each value of a random variable.

EXAMPLES 1.Suppose you toss a coin three times. Let x be the total number of heads. Make a table for the probability distribution of x. 2.Suppose you throw a pair of dice. Let x be the sum of the numbers on the dice. Make a table for the probability distribution of x.

SAMPLE SPACE FOR ROLLING A PAIR OF DICE 1-11-21-31-41-51-6 2-12-22-32-42-52-6 3-13-23-33-43-53-6 4-14-24-34-44-54-6 5-15-25-35-45-55-6 6-16-26-36-46-56-6

DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLES A discrete random variable has either a finite number of values or a countable number of values, where “countable” refers to the fact that there might be infinitely many values, but they can be associated with a counting process. A continuous random variable has infinitely many values, and those values can be associated with measurements on a continuous scale in such a way that there are no gaps or interruptions.

EXAMPLES 1.Let x be the number of cars that travel through McDonald’s drive-through in the next hour. 2.Let x be the speed of the next car that passes a state trooper. 3.Let x be the number of As earned in a section of statistics with 15 students enrolled. Determine whether the following are discrete or continuous random variables.

PROBABILITY HISTORGRAM A probability histogram is like a relative frequency histogram with probabilities instead of relative frequencies.

EXAMPLES 1.Suppose you toss a coin three times. Let x be the total number of heads. Draw a probability histogram for x. 2.Suppose you throw a pair of dice. Let x be the sum of the numbers on the dice. Draw a probability histogram for x.

REQUIREMENTS FOR A PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION ΣP(x) = 1where x assumes all possible values 0 ≤ P(x) ≤ 1for every individual value of x

EXAMPLES xP(x)P(x) 10.20 20.35 30.12 40.40 5−0.07 xP(x)P(x) 10.20 20.25 30.10 40.14 50.49 Determine if the following are probability distributions xP(x)P(x) 10.20 20.25 30.10 40.14 50.31 (a)(b)(c)

MEAN, VARIANCE, AND STANDARD DEVIATION Mean of a Prob. Dist. Variance of a Prob. Dist. Standard Deviation of a Prob. Dist.

1.Enter values for random variable in L 1. 2.Enter the probabilities for the random variables in L 2. 3.Run “1-VarStat L 1, L 2 ” 4.The mean will be. The standard deviation will be σx. To get the variance, square σx. FINDIND MEAN, VARIANCE, AND STANDARD DEVIATION WITH TI-83/84 CALCULATOR

ROUND-OFF RULE FOR μ, σ, AND σ 2 Round results by carrying one more decimal place than the number of decimal places used for the random variable x.

MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM USUAL VALUES Recall: minimum usual value = μ − 2σ maximum usual value = μ + 2σ

EXAMPLE Use the range rule of thumb to determine the unusual values for rolling a pair of dice.

IDENTIFYING UNUSUAL RESULTS USING PROBABILITIES Rare Event Rule: If, under a given assumption the probability of a particular observed event is extremely small, we conclude that the assumption is probably not correct. Unusually High: x successes among n trials is an unusually high number of successes if P(x or more) is very small (such as 0.05 or less). Unusually Low: x successes among n trials is an unusually low number of successes if P(x or fewer) is very small (such as 0.05 or less).

EXAMPLE Consider the procedure of rolling a pair of dice five times and letting x be the number of times that “7” occurs. The table below describes the probability distribution. (a)Find the value of the missing probability. (b)Would it be unusual to roll a pair of dice and get at least three “7s”? xP(x)P(x) 00.402 1 2? 30.032 40.003 50.000+

EXPECTED VALUE The expected value of a discrete random variable is denoted by E, and it represents the average value of the outcomes. It is obtained by find the value of Σ[x · P(x)]. E = Σ[x · P(x)] EXAMPLE: Exercise 19, 20, page 209.

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