2 SociolinguisticsThe way one speaks provides clues not only to a person’s regional background but also to his social one, e.g. his/her education and economic status.Speech is a form of social identity.Language indicates the membership of different social group- speech community.Speech communityA group of people= share a set of norms, rules, and expectation about language use.
3 The Relationship between Language and Society Linguistics + anthropologyLanguage and cultureLinguistics + sociologyThe role language plays in the organization of social groupsLinguistics + social psychologyIn-group and out-group behaviors
4 (investigation of language and culture) Speech communityGroup of people who share a set of norms, rules and expectations regarding the use of languageAnthropology(investigation of language and culture)SociolinguisticsSociology (role that language plays in social groups and institutions)Psychology (how attitudes and perceptions are expressed)Inter-relationships between language and society
5 Varieties of language used by groups defined Social DialectsVarieties of language used by groups definedEducationOther socialparametersClassAgeSex
6 In social dialects…Over prestigePositively valued ways pf speaking in social communitiesPrestigeNon –standard forms and expressions by certain sub-groupsCovert prestige
7 Differences in pronunciation among social classes from the same place. SOCIAL DIALECTSEDUCATIONSOCIAL CLASSA person who spends a long time going through college or university will tend to have spoken language features.Differences in pronunciation among social classes from the same place.
8 Differ in form and pronunciation Social ClassLanguageAndEducationUpper class and more educatedTend to use more complicated formsLower class and less educatedTend to simplify the way of speaking
9 are also factors that can determine language variety Age and gender MALE SPEAKERSFEMALE SPEAKERSElder people may talk a bit different from youngersTend to use simpler ways of speakingTend to use more sophisticated language
10 Importan form to determine languages ETHNIC BACKGROUNDImportan form to determine languagesIs easy to identify people’s belonging placeBlack English Vernacular(speech of many African- Americans)
11 Dialect of each individual speaker of a language IDIOLECTDialect of each individual speaker of a languageVoice qualityPhysical stateContribute to identifying features in an individual’s speech
12 Job interview, business letters, etc. FormalSpoken or WrittenJob interview, business letters, etc.StyleInformal Spoken or WrittenSpeaking to a friend or writing to him.
13 Relations between Language and Culture Structure of language determines the way that speakers of that language view the world.Culture is reflected in language. Cultural requirements do not determine structure of language, but influence how it is used.
14 Sapir-Whorf/Whorfian Hypothesis Edward Sapir: Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language.
15 Sapir’s IdeaThe fact of the matter is that the “real world” is unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group. We see and hear and…experience very largely as we do because the language habits of our community predispose certain choices of interpretation.
16 Benjamin Lee WhorfThe background linguistic system (in other words the grammar) of each language is not merely a reproducing instrument for voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas…the guide for individual’s mental activity…Formulation of ideas is not an independent process, but…is part of particular grammar…
17 Then…Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis = the structure of a language affects the way in which its speakers conceptualize the World.Different speakers will view the world differently in so far as the languages they speak differ structurally.Our language controls our world view, thus speakers of different languages will have different world views.
18 What to write for week 4: The Role of Language in Society The Influence of Society and Culture to the Language