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Presentation on theme: "PHARYNX and LARYNX."— Presentation transcript:


2 Muscles of Pharynx Meet posteriorly at pharyngeal raphe.
Overlap constrictor muscles above. Lateral gaps occur between constrictor muscles anteriorly. Used in swallowing.

3 Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor
Gap above constrictor: Closed by pharyngobasilar fascia. Traversed by auditory tube. Forms tonsilar bed

4 Middle Pharyngeal Constrictor
Gap above middle constrictor: Traversed by: Stylopharyngeus muscle. Glossopharyngeal nerve.

5 Innervation and Blood Supply of Pharynx
Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus: Except stylopharyngeus. Recurrent laryngeal nerves to lower part of inferior constrictor. Blood supply: Ascending pharyngeal artery.

6 Laryngeal Skeleton: Thyroid
Thyrohyoid membrane. Cricothyroid membrane. Laminae: Superior thyroid notch. Meet at: 90 degrees in male. 120 degrees in female. Superior and inferior horns.

7 Laryngeal Skeleton: Cricoid
Lies at level of cervical vertebra 6.

8 Laryngeal Skeleton: Arytenoid
Paired. Sit on superior surface of cricoid. Support corniculate cartilage. Processes: Muscular. Vocal: Attachment for vocal ligament.

9 Laryngeal Skeleton: Epiglottis
Attached to thyroid cartilage: Via thyro-epiglottic ligament. Mucosa on surface extends onto tongue and walls of oropharynx: Median glosso-epiglottic fold. Lateral pharyngo-epiglottic folds. Valleculae: Valleys on either side of glosso-epiglottic fold. Common sites for lodgement.

10 Laryngeal Skeleton Other cartilages: Corniculate. Cuneiform.

11 Laryngeal Cavity and Folds
Characterized by superior and inferior pairs of folds. Vestibule: Lies between vestibular folds. Vestibular Folds: False vocal cords. Rima vestibuli: Space between vestibular folds.

12 Laryngeal Cavity and Folds
Ventricular folds: True vocal cords. Vocal ligaments. Rima glottidis: Space between vocal folds. Narrowest part of laryngeal cavity. Opens and closes to regulate passage of air.

13 Laryngeal Cavity and Folds
Infraglottic cavity: Lies between ventricular folds and lower border of cricoid cartilage. Continuous inferiorly with trachea.

14 Innervation of Larynx Vagus nerve: External laryngeal branch:
To cricothyroid muscle. Inferior laryngeal branch: All remaining muscles of the larynx. Sensory to mucosa of larynx below vocal folds. Internal laryngeal branch: Sensory to mucosa above vocal folds. Sensory to piriform recess and valleculae. Can be anesthetized in floor of piriform recess.

15 Blood Supply of Larynx Superior laryngeal artery:
From superior thyroid artery. Inferior laryngeal artery: Branch of inferior thyroid artery.

16 Piriform Recess Part of laryngopharynx lateral to larynx:
Lateral boundary: Thyrohyoid membrane and thyroid cartilage. Medial boundary: Aryepiglottic fold; arytenoid and cricoid cartilages. Site of lodgement.

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