3 Identifying the Generators of Sound Primary generators:Vocal folds (vocal cords)Muscles that form the larynxRespiration CycleInhalationAir passes through the larynx (voice box) and the trachea (windpipe) and is drawn into the lungsExhalationair in the lungs pushed back through the larynx and trachea through the throat and out through the mouth or nose
5 Using Respiration for Speaking Slight changes in regular breathing includeBurst of air from the lungs up to the larynx to set the vocal cords into vibrationYou inhale more swiftly and more deeply than you do during normal breathingYou prolong the airflow as you exhaleMuscles in the chest wall contract to counteract the force of the diaphragm so that all your air does not escape at oncePrevents “gulping” of air in order to finish sentences
7 Understanding the Resonators Resonance: reinforcement produced by vibrationResonators of sound for speech:Bones in the chest, neck and headCavities of the throat, nose, and mouthA cavity is a partially enclosed areaA cavity’s natural range of sound depends onSize, shape, texture of the material forming the cavity, and size of the opening of the cavity
9 ACTIVITY 2: Experimenting with Sound Production Loop a large rubber band over your hands and stretch it as far as possible.Pluck the band with your thumb. Describe the sound.Move hands closer together and continue plucking.How do the sounds change?How do your findings relate to the process of producing human speech?
10 Identifying the Articulators of Sound Articulation: shaping of speech sounds into recognizable oral symbols that go together to make up a wordThe major articulators are in the mouth:TongueHard and soft palatesTeethLips
12 The Sounds of English Pronunciation International Phonetic Alphabet Symbols frequently used in speechPhonetic Chart of IPA symbols
13 Classification of Sounds Voiced: vocal cords are vibrating when the sound is being madeVoiceless: vocal folds are held open so that air breathed out does not vibrate themConsonantsPlosivesFricativesNasalsglides
14 Improving Vocalization Pitch: highness or lowness of the soundKey: average pitch at which you speakMelody: variations in pitch to give expression to the voiceRange: spread between the lowest and highest notes you can speak comfortablyInflection: upward or downward glide of your pitch as you speakRisingFallingCircumflexStep
15 Improving Vocalization VolumeLoudness or intensity of soundDepends on the force exerted to produce speech tone
16 Activity 5: Experimenting with Loudness Place your hands around your waist like a belt.In a normal voice say “Get over here as fast as you can.”Say the same sentence very loudly. On at last three of the words, you should feel a sharp tensing of the stomach muscles.Say it again. This time try to stop your stomach muscles from moving.What happens to your voice?
17 Improving Vocalization RateSpeed at which you talkNormal speed: words per minuteRate is influenced by a number of factors, including the emotional content of the message
18 Activity 6: Timing Your Rate of Speech With a partner, take turns reading a passage in a book or magazine.Time each other.Count the number of words in the passage and figure out the rate of speech.
19 Improving Vocalization QualityTone of your voicePersonal vocal quality is the tone that makes your voice identifiable as yours.Most common quality problemsNasalityBreathinessHoarsenessharshness
20 Correcting Articulation Problems Substituting one sound for anotherCommon problemsda for the, radder for rather, dose for thosetink for think, anyting for anythingexcape for escape, expecially for especiallybref for breath, bof for bothcoutn’t for couldn’t, woutn’t for wouldn’tjist for justgit for get, pin for pen
21 Correcting Articulation Problems Leaving out a Sound (omission)Common problemsdropping “d”: frien, goledropping “t”: mos, jus, kep, besdropping “l”: hep, sef, woff, sauvedropping initial “h” after other words: see’um, gave’erdropping “e” along with a consonant sound: Probly, member
22 Correcting Articulation Problems Adding an Extra SoundCommon problemssoften for sofenfilum for film, athaletic for athletic, childaren for childrenidear for idea, drawr for drawahold for hold, especial for special, ascared for scared
23 Correcting Articulation Problems Transposing soundsCommon problemsaks for askhunderd for hundredperscribe for prescribe, perfer for preferchildern for children, modren for modern
25 REVIEW QUESTIONS Unit 1 Section 3a 1. What is the basic difference between the breathing process used in regular breathing and the process used by a person who is speaking?2. Define resonance.3. Identify three major cavity resonators and explain how each affects the sound of the voice.4. What are the major articulators?5. What is the difference between pitch and volume?6. What are the four major vocalization problems that relate to the quality, or tone, of the voice?7. What are the four major articulation problems that can be remedied with practice?