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USING YOUR VOICE Unit 1 Section 3a.

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Presentation on theme: "USING YOUR VOICE Unit 1 Section 3a."— Presentation transcript:

1 USING YOUR VOICE Unit 1 Section 3a

2 Vocabulary Articulation Breathiness Diaphragm Inflection Larynx
Nasality Pitch Pronunciation Range Rate Resonance Trachea Vocal cords Voiced

3 Identifying the Generators of Sound
Primary generators: Vocal folds (vocal cords) Muscles that form the larynx Respiration Cycle Inhalation Air passes through the larynx (voice box) and the trachea (windpipe) and is drawn into the lungs Exhalation air in the lungs pushed back through the larynx and trachea through the throat and out through the mouth or nose

4 Inhalation and Exhalation

5 Using Respiration for Speaking
Slight changes in regular breathing include Burst of air from the lungs up to the larynx to set the vocal cords into vibration You inhale more swiftly and more deeply than you do during normal breathing You prolong the airflow as you exhale Muscles in the chest wall contract to counteract the force of the diaphragm so that all your air does not escape at once Prevents “gulping” of air in order to finish sentences

6 ACTIVITY 1: Breathing exercises

7 Understanding the Resonators
Resonance: reinforcement produced by vibration Resonators of sound for speech: Bones in the chest, neck and head Cavities of the throat, nose, and mouth A cavity is a partially enclosed area A cavity’s natural range of sound depends on Size, shape, texture of the material forming the cavity, and size of the opening of the cavity

8 Resonators Throat: Pharyngeal cavity Nose: Nasal cavity
Mouth: Oral cavity

9 ACTIVITY 2: Experimenting with Sound Production
Loop a large rubber band over your hands and stretch it as far as possible. Pluck the band with your thumb. Describe the sound. Move hands closer together and continue plucking. How do the sounds change? How do your findings relate to the process of producing human speech?

10 Identifying the Articulators of Sound
Articulation: shaping of speech sounds into recognizable oral symbols that go together to make up a word The major articulators are in the mouth: Tongue Hard and soft palates Teeth Lips

11 Diagram of the Mouth

12 The Sounds of English Pronunciation International Phonetic Alphabet
Symbols frequently used in speech Phonetic Chart of IPA symbols

13 Classification of Sounds
Voiced: vocal cords are vibrating when the sound is being made Voiceless: vocal folds are held open so that air breathed out does not vibrate them Consonants Plosives Fricatives Nasals glides

14 Improving Vocalization
Pitch: highness or lowness of the sound Key: average pitch at which you speak Melody: variations in pitch to give expression to the voice Range: spread between the lowest and highest notes you can speak comfortably Inflection: upward or downward glide of your pitch as you speak Rising Falling Circumflex Step

15 Improving Vocalization
Volume Loudness or intensity of sound Depends on the force exerted to produce speech tone

16 Activity 5: Experimenting with Loudness
Place your hands around your waist like a belt. In a normal voice say “Get over here as fast as you can.” Say the same sentence very loudly. On at last three of the words, you should feel a sharp tensing of the stomach muscles. Say it again. This time try to stop your stomach muscles from moving. What happens to your voice?

17 Improving Vocalization
Rate Speed at which you talk Normal speed: words per minute Rate is influenced by a number of factors, including the emotional content of the message

18 Activity 6: Timing Your Rate of Speech
With a partner, take turns reading a passage in a book or magazine. Time each other. Count the number of words in the passage and figure out the rate of speech.

19 Improving Vocalization
Quality Tone of your voice Personal vocal quality is the tone that makes your voice identifiable as yours. Most common quality problems Nasality Breathiness Hoarseness harshness

20 Correcting Articulation Problems
Substituting one sound for another Common problems da for the, radder for rather, dose for those tink for think, anyting for anything excape for escape, expecially for especially bref for breath, bof for both coutn’t for couldn’t, woutn’t for wouldn’t jist for just git for get, pin for pen

21 Correcting Articulation Problems
Leaving out a Sound (omission) Common problems dropping “d”: frien, gole dropping “t”: mos, jus, kep, bes dropping “l”: hep, sef, woff, sauve dropping initial “h” after other words: see’um, gave’er dropping “e” along with a consonant sound: Probly, member

22 Correcting Articulation Problems
Adding an Extra Sound Common problems soften for sofen filum for film, athaletic for athletic, childaren for children idear for idea, drawr for draw ahold for hold, especial for special, ascared for scared

23 Correcting Articulation Problems
Transposing sounds Common problems aks for ask hunderd for hundred perscribe for prescribe, perfer for prefer childern for children, modren for modern

24 Sending Effective Vocal Messages
Breathe properly Resonate sounds effectively Articulate clearly Use vocal variety and appropriate emphasis

25 REVIEW QUESTIONS Unit 1 Section 3a
1. What is the basic difference between the breathing process used in regular breathing and the process used by a person who is speaking? 2. Define resonance. 3. Identify three major cavity resonators and explain how each affects the sound of the voice. 4. What are the major articulators? 5. What is the difference between pitch and volume? 6. What are the four major vocalization problems that relate to the quality, or tone, of the voice? 7. What are the four major articulation problems that can be remedied with practice?

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