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Voicing & Phonation LIN 3201. 4 Parameters for Describing Sounds 1.Airstream Mechanism How/From where air is initiated, direction of airflow 2.State of.

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Presentation on theme: "Voicing & Phonation LIN 3201. 4 Parameters for Describing Sounds 1.Airstream Mechanism How/From where air is initiated, direction of airflow 2.State of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Voicing & Phonation LIN 3201

2 4 Parameters for Describing Sounds 1.Airstream Mechanism How/From where air is initiated, direction of airflow 2.State of the Glottis Vocal fold state - wide open, vibrating – that affects airstream 3.Place of Articulation Where air is shaped in airstream 4.Manner of Articulation How air is shaped in airstream

3 www.yorku.ca/earnstro/journey/images/larxsec.gif The Larynx & Vocal Folds

4 Pictures of Larynx www.anatomyatlases.org

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7 What is Phonation? Keep in mind, with state of glottis & vocal folds:  Phonation is NOT articulatory in nature oNOT glottis in SHAPING AIRFLOW – i.e. not glottal stop  Phonation is NOT initiatory in nature oNOT glottis as INITIATOR of AIRFLOW – i.e. not glottalic inititation

8 Instead… We mean the status of vocal folds while air (the initiatory airstream) passes through the glottis, as in:  Wide open glottis – relaxed vocal folds  Narrowing of glottis – vibrating vocal folds Also known as VOICING

9 Phonation & Initiation Airstream must pass through larynx for phonation to occur Glottalic Initiation = generally unphonated Glottis tightly closed for Implosives & Ejectives– no airstream flows through BUT Vocied Glottalic Ingressives BUT Vocied Glottalic Ingressives (Voiced Implosives) CAN BE PHONATED - downward motion of larynx allows some air to flow through for voicing

10 Velaric Initiation (Clicks) = no phonation Air trapped in mouth – no airstream through larynx (Can perform against phonated background, but phonation is nasal hum, not click itself)

11 Pulmonic Inititation (Plosives)= phonation Airstream from lungs must flow through larynx ALL plosives are phonated, EXCEPT glottal stop

12 Larynx/Vocal Fold Links & Web Resources Three-dimensional, rotatable model of the larynx http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/qtvr/qtvr_larynx.html Photos & Video of Larynx & Vocal Folds:  http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/linguistics/lectures/glottis.j pg http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/linguistics/lectures/glottis.j pg  http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/linguistics/faciliti/demos/ vocalfolds/vocalfolds.htm http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/linguistics/faciliti/demos/ vocalfolds/vocalfolds.htm  http://cspeech.ucd.ie/~fred/teaching/oldcourses/phonetics/glotti s.html http://cspeech.ucd.ie/~fred/teaching/oldcourses/phonetics/glotti s.html SOURCE: http://www.unc.edu/~jlsmith/pht-url.html#(2)

13 Different Types of Voicing/Phonation Different types of voicing due to different states of vocal folds during airflow Most Airflow ---> Least Airflow

14 Phonation Types 1. Voiceless – vocal folds wide open, allowing airs to pass through freely [p], [t], [k], [f], [s] in English Typically voiced sounds use diacritic

15 Vocal Folds during Voicelessness cspeech.ucd.ie/.../phonetics/pics/vfold-open.gif www.voiceproblem.org

16 Phonation Types, cont. 2. Breathy Voice/Murmur – vocal folds are held loosely open, but flap as air rushes by Usually heard on release of following vowel Used “dotted” diacritic http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter12/gujarati.html

17 Vocal Folds during Breathy Voice/Murmur phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter12/breathy.gif

18 Phonation Types, cont. 3. Voiced (Modal Voice) – Vocal Folds are set for vibration In English [b], [v], [d], [g], [z], [m], [n] and vowels are generally voiced Produces periodic wave – regular increases and decreases in pressure

19 Vocal Folds during Voicing www.linguistics.ucla.edu/.../slowcords.gif

20 Phonation Types, cont. 4. Creaky Voice – One end of vocal folds is closed completely, while a small opening in the front is opened; it vibrates slowly and produces a low frequency sound Slow, irregular vibration IPA diacritic = [~] under the symbol Also known as “vocal fry”

21 Vocal Folds during Creaky Voice. http://www.ims.uni- stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/page10.htm#creak phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter12/creaky.html

22 Phonation Types, cont. 5. Whisper – Turbulent airflow is caused by narrowing of glottis Used for sociolinguistic or paralinguistic effect in languages (emotion, secrecy, etc.) VERY rare as linguistic use Catford calls this “murmur” Hook diacritic below sound

23 Audio Files of Phonation Types http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/page10.htm#creak

24 Photos of 4 Major Phonation States Voiceless Voiced Breathy/ Murmur Creaky

25 Voiceless Sonorants Breathy Voice/Murmur Examples of Phonation Types within Languages (From Dr. Caroline Wiltshire)


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