2 Mission StatementAn SWAT Members of a Law Enforcement Special Weapons and Tactics Unit must be able to operate in hostile conditions under extreme pressures with surgical skill for the safety of all law enforcement personnel, hostages, the general public, and the suspect(s).Entry is always used as a last resort when all other means have been exhausted for a peaceful end to a critical incident.
4 What Is A Hostage ?A person kept as a pledge pending the fulfillment of an agreementA person held by another person as a security for the fulfillment of a certain demandA hostage is a victim held against his or her will by threat or the actual use of force
5 Historical Perspective Munich Olympics in 1972 focused the world’s attention on hostage incidents.Holland -- may 1976 hostages held on train by Mollocan terrorists.Entebbe, Uganda -- July 1976.Mogadishu, Somalia -- Oct rescue of passengers from airliner.
6 Historical Perspective continued … Iran -- April 1980 American Hostages held at embassyLondon, England -- May 1980 Hostages rescued from Iranian EmbassyLima, Peru Hostages rescued from Japanese Embassy
8 What Is A Hostage ?A person kept as a pledge pending the fulfillment of an agreementA person held by another person as a security for the fulfillment of a certain demandA hostage is a victim held against his or her will by threat or the actual use of force
9 Historical Perspective Munich Olympics in 1972 focused the world’s attention on hostage incidents.Holland -- may 1976 hostages held on train by Mollocan terrorists.Entebbe, Uganda -- July 1976.Mogadishu, Somalia -- Oct rescue of passengers from airliner.
10 Historical Perspective continued … Iran -- April 1980 American Hostages held at embassyLondon, England -- May 1980 Hostages rescued from Iranian EmbassyLima, Peru Hostages rescued from Japanese Embassy
12 Terrorist Hostage Taker Political motivationsCommitted to causeIn for the long haul, often able to endure extended periods of time barricaded
13 Criminal Hostage Taker Caught in the commission of a crime.Important not to create feelings of hopelessness during negotiations.Hostages used to slow police response
14 Target Individuals Mentally disturbed persons Prisoners May be irrational and/or suicidalPrisonersHistorically, immediate and forceful action has proven most effective
15 Hostage Taking Response Most incidents are local authority responsibilityMost incidents are not terrorismMost incidents are criminals and/or mentally disturbed personsThe vast majority of incidents are resolved using the “negotiation” process
16 Patrol Supervisor Responsibilities Evacuate citizens from target site areaContain target siteEstablish field command postSummon emergency medical personnelEstablish outer perimeter for traffic and pedestrian controlLocate persons that can provide intelligenceNotify PIO and establish media area
17 TPD Simplified Command Structure For Typical Critical Incident
19 SWAT Commander’s Responsibilities Delegate Supervisory MissionsEmergency Rescue PlanDeliberate Rescue PlanNegotiations with CNTTactical Operations Center
20 First SWAT Supervisor on Scene Use rapid deployment tacticsDeploy marksmen/observer teamsDeploy emergency rescue teamDeploy containment personnel as neededInsure the negotiation process has been initiated
21 Hostage Taker’s Actions Release hostages / surrenderRelease hostages / suicideKill hostages / suicideKill hostages / surrenderContinue to hold hostagesKill one hostage / continue
22 Hostage Taker’s Actions Flee after killing hostagesExit with gun to his/her headExit and confront police with or without hostagesExit surrounded by hostages
23 HOSTAGE TAKER’S ACTIONS Peril to the Hostages should be considered extreme if :- The Hostage taker is unnecessarily cruel to theHostage(s)- When there is no human interaction between theHostage taker and Hostage*Physical separation* Hostages blindfolded
28 Hostage Rescue Tactics The command decision to shoot the hostage takerThe Truth About Incident Command (Article by R.McCarthy)
29 Hostage Rescue Components Command and controlResponsible for all ancillary operationsSpecial weapons teamEntry componentContainment componentNegotiations teamShould include tactical liaison and coordination with SWAT
30 Phases of a Hostage Rescue Operation PlanningRehearsalMovementInterventionWithdrawal
31 Planning Situation Mission Provides a brief summary of all that has transpired and any mitigating or aggravating circumstances that can affect the operationMissionPrecisely defines the objective
32 Planning Execution Administration & logistics Command & signal How the objective is expected to be achievedAdministration & logistics“Beans, bandages and bullets”Command & signalWho is in charge of what and how we will communicate
33 Planning The focus is on the hostages not the suspect Planning is usually conducted in reverseFrom the hostages to safety, not from the entry to the suspectThe focus is on the hostages not the suspectMay mean the suspect temporally remains free from authority’s custody
34 Planning Opportunity, not Time, is the key factor Time may provide opportunities, but passing opportunities may mean they are lost foreverNever commit to just One plan of ActionAlternate contingency plans should be developed and ready.No operation is static and planning should be continuous
35 RehearsalHostage rescue interventions are too complex and too important to leave anything to chance.Rehearsals should be “full dress” whenever possible
36 RehearsalThe rehearsal should include radio traffic and signals, as well as the planned movementThe last rehearsal should be done in “real”time utilizing the anticipated floor plan andany equipment likely to be needed.
37 MovementThe movement phase begins when it has determined that a tactical intervention is likely but not yet imminentDuring this phase the team is deployed and staged in a position to intervenePlanning and preparation continueMajor plan changes now become more difficult
38 Movement This is the phase in which secrecy is most crucial The survival of the Hostages and Team members require that the Hostage Taker(s) do not suspect the interventionThe Media can not suspect your intentions
39 InterventionIntervention phase begins when a tactical intervention is imminentCommand moves from incident commander to SWAT commanderMost visible phaseMost often the only part of the operation reported by the media
40 InterventionExcept under the most exigent circumstances, a tactical intervention to rescue the hostages should not be recommended without four things being present:
41 Intervention 1. The floor plan of the Target Site must be known. 2. The Entry Team must be in a position to intervene within ten seconds of the signal from the SWAT CommanderA window of opportunity or necessity may be lost if not
42 Intervention3. Sufficient personnel must be available to dominate all areas of threatIt is most often the complexity of the floor plan and not the size of the building which dictates the size of the entry team4. The entry team must be able to protect the hostages within a maximum of 30 seconds
43 InterventionIdeally a hostage rescue entry is comprised of two preparatory actionsThe team is staged at the point(s) of breach/entryA diversion precedes the actual entry to confuse and disorient the hostage taker
44 Intervention Breach and Entry Methods Covert Hooligan & Ram Bar Pull Shotgun BreachExplosives
45 Intervention Breach and entry methods Entry should be made at the closest point possible to the hostagesWhen feasible use multiple breach/entry points and/or breach/gun ports
46 Intervention Two types of Diversions Physiological (explosive breach,noise flash devices, etc)Psychological (ruse)The ideal diversion is a “Coordinated Marksmen Initiated Intervention”Diversions are always used in a supporting role
47 InterventionBecause of the high degree of coordination required coupled with the speed of the intervention; assignments must be understood and HRT principles rigidly adhered to.
48 InterventionThe first requirement is to assign individual team member responsibilities
49 InterventionThe next requirement is the determination of how to accomplish the entryHow do we get through the door?What’s the best entry technique?
54 Intervention The next requirement is entry team responsibility The rescue element’s responsibility is to insure the hostage taker does not harm the hostagesThe security element’s responsibility is handling of hostages, breaching and protection of the rescue element.” Trailers”
55 InterventionThe last requirement for beginning the intervention is the signal to beginWhenever possible, this signal should be a casualty producing signalThe best casualty producing signal for Hostage rescue is a “Coordinated Marksmen Initiated Intervention”
57 InterventionKEYS TO SUCCESSSURPRISEDIVERSIONSPEED (CONTROLLED)
58 Intervention Four objectives of a hostage rescue intervention To quickly take control of an area and dominate itTo deliver rapid and accurate fire when necessaryPositive target identificationTo complete your assignment without hindering the efforts of your fellow Team Members in completing theirs
59 Intervention OPEN AIR OPTION Most desirable due to high probability of successRequires highly skilled marksmen with sophisticated and accurate weaponsTwo marksmen for each hostage taker deployed as close to right angles as possible (L-shape)
60 Intervention OPEN AIR OPTION All Marksmen should be certain of assigned targetsAll shots should be coordinated by command ofSniper Controller (multiple hostage takers)Rescue team must be deployedHead shots are desirable
61 Intervention OPEN AIR OPTION Deployed to dominate predictable target areaField of view vs. Field of fireObtain total coverage of target site with overlapping sectors of fireConsider background (choose proper weapon)Relay all information to marksmen TOC
62 Intervention OPEN AIR OPTION Confirm or deny information on hand Neutralize a vehicleNeutralize a hostage takerIdentify routes in and out of target siteIdentify special problems at target siteDiscuss compromise authority
63 Intervention MOBILE OPTION Second most desirable option Places Hostages/Takers in position to be observedSedan type vehicles with large windows are best and require six team membersLarge vehicles and buses require special laddersand additional team membersThis contingency should be planned for early on
64 Intervention MOBILE OPTION Consider number of hostage takers hostages are involvedHave CNT talk vehicle size down (bus to sedan) deliver what is best for a rescueDuplicate vehicle to be used and rehearse all options
65 Intervention MOBILE OPTION Vehicle should be altered to compliment the interventionMirrorsWindows downTrunk lid raisedElectronic neutralization device (END)
66 Intervention MOBILE OPTION Rescue team should be armed with large caliber pistolsMarksmen initiated rescue is preferred
74 Intervention STRONGHOLD OPTION SPEED (CONTROLLED) Multiple entry points when feasibleAppropriate number of entry personnel to accomplish the mission
75 Intervention STRONGHOLD OPTION There should be three distinct plans EmergencyDeliberateContingency
76 Intervention EMERGENCY RESCUE Timeliness and quick response is paramountProvides an organized response for an unplanned eventShould be implemented within 30 minutes of SWAT arrivalAll available intelligence is evaluated for tactical consideration
77 Intervention EMERGENCY RESCUE Considerations Number of hostages/hostage takersSize/complexity of target sitePoint(s) of entryBreach requirementsBypassing doors
78 Intervention DELIBERATE RESCUE Used for conduct of all Operations that are anticipated and allow for preplanningServes as a base for all related operationsConsidered the “Master” plan
79 Intervention DELIBERATE RESCUE Obtain all available intelligence from the TOCUse photos and interior diagrams of the target site to layout floor plan and rehearseRehearsals should include every possible option to the last detail
80 Intervention DELIBERATE RESCUE Stealth Probe Determine hostage/hostage taker locationDetermine ingress route for rescue teamLocate devices/technical problemsPlace listening devicesProbe coordinated with TOC and OICEmergency rescue team in place in case of compromise
81 Intervention CONTINGENCY Focuses thought on anticipated problems that may arise during the conduct of the operationAllows for operational deviation while maintaining continuity with the deliberate plan
82 Intervention CONTINGENCY Guards against the operation stopping due to confusion or sudden change in the situationUsually applies primarily to the concept or execution portions of the Deliberate Rescue Plan
83 WHAT CONSTITUTES SUFFICIENT PERSONNEL? InterventionWHAT CONSTITUTES SUFFICIENT PERSONNEL?To attempt a Hostage Rescue without sufficient personnel places too great of a burden on the Entry Team and means they must unduly jeopardize their own safetyThe size of the Entry Team is dictated by the complexity of the floor plan and not necessarily the size of the building
84 Intervention WHAT CONSTITUTES SUFFICIENT PERSONNEL? The single exception is when the location of the Hostageand/or the Hostage taker can be determined with absolutecertainty
85 Intervention WHEN TO INTERVENE ? When it appears that the hostage taker may kill or seriously injure hostagesWhen a window of opportunity existThe hostage taker has placed himself at a tactical disadvantageAn element of surprise exist
86 Intervention WHEN TO INTERVENE ? Required components are ready Supported by diversionsNegotiationsBreaching/portingNoise flash devicesAccess into stronghold position can be gained quickly
87 “THE OBJECTIVE IS TO WIN -- InterventionWhat if we encounter the hostages but the hostage taker is still outstanding?Safeguard the hostagesAbort HRT and initiate barricade procedures“THE OBJECTIVE IS TO WIN --NOT TO FIGHT !”
88 What if you have to pass an area of threat ? InterventionWhat if you have to pass an area of threat ?The momentum of the rescue can not be delayed to search every potential hiding place or area of threatThis is the security element’s responsibilityThe focus of effort remains on the hostages !
89 Withdrawal The evacuation of the hostage must be planned If it is not part of the plan it becomes part of the problem !Hostages may not be willing participants to the rescueHostage takers may take refuge with the hostages in an attempt to not be identified and escapeOnce the hostages safety is assured the tone of the operation changes
90 What Constitutes a Successful Hostage Rescue Operation ? When the hostages are “rescued”When the hostage taker is neutralizedWhen the hostages can be safeguarded/ separated from the hostage taker
99 Responsibilities Team Leader Provide Cover for Scout and Point Exercise Control over team Movement and ActionsMake Tactical Decisions that effect operational integritySupervision of interior aftermath (I.e. trailers, medical personnel, and Crime Scene)Overall Supervision of RESCUE/REACT team Intervention
102 Responsibilities Mechanical Breacher Cover aforementioned team members Manipulate Gates and Screen Doors/WindowsDeploy D.D.’s and MunitionsCarry and deploy mechanical breaching devicesHooliganPryBreak and Rake ToolMaster KeysShotgun Breaching MunitionsTow StrapsLock Pick ToolsProbing devices (I.e Under door Camera)
104 Responsibilities Breacher/Rear Guard Breach Primary Entry Point Carry and Deploy Heavy Equipment (I.e. Cutting Torch)Cover the rear of the Entry Element as they progress through a structure.Provide Arrest Control for Combative suspects
117 MARKSMAN INITIATED RESCUE Primary and Secondary Marksman may initiate assault by using deadly force.During the course of this initiation it may Breach the Assault element’s primary entry point. (i,.e. firing through a window)
124 Justification for Dynamic Entry Provides safety by speed of actionConfusionOverwhelming Senses of Suspect(s)Preservation of Life and EvidenceProven Procedure
125 Dynamic Entry often utilizes Diversionary and Sensory Deprivation Tactics to give the Entry element an advantage over suspects.Dynamic entries are often swift in completion and can be best visualized by releasing a bucket of water at the entry point. Members begin to flow in as water would flow into a room. During this action certain procedure should be followed for optimal performance of this tactic.
126 There are many techniques for dynamic entries There are many techniques for dynamic entries. The principles remain the same.Penetrate StructureClear Corners and Transition AreasObserve One Meter RuleReact on Suspect ActionsOverwhelm the suspectsDominate Structure
127 THE ONE METER RULEThe one meter rule refers to the area of responsibility each operator sweeps upon entering the objective. Each operator will scan with his or her weapon left to right. Upon seeing another operative within his field of view the operator must stop their sweep one meter short of another operative. This assures interlocking security sweeps as well as safety.
129 HRT VS. WARRANT SERVICEHRT Objective- Prevent loss of life and arrest violator(s).Warrant Service Objective- Detain or arrest suspects and or secure a crime scene.
130 HRT EntryHRT Entry is used as a last resort to end a critical incident.The suspect dictates the use of this tool.
131 Stealth Entry TacticsStealth tactics are a common occurrence in the service of warrants and during HRT operations.Stealth is almost always used upon approach to the objective and can be used inside the structure.This Tactic is usually very methodic and deliberate in nature.Stealth has the advantage of a slow pace for the gathering of crucial intelligence as the team progresses to and in the objective structure.Stealth Entry Tactics may be used due to the size of a structure.
132 Combination Entry Tactics Stealth and Dynamic Entry can be used in combination. The use of stealth up to a designated point within an objective is a common occurrence. Typically Stealth is not used after Dynamic Tactics are initiated. The combination of these tactics is often used in large structures such as grocery stores or warehouses.
133 BASIC ENTRY S.O.P Danger Areas Fatal Funnel Corners Hallways Stairways Small Rooms (i.e. Closets, Utility Rooms)
137 SUSPECT CONTROL Demand Immediate Compliance Physical Control Standardized Voice CommandsPhysical ControlCCP/Penal Code/Use of Force PolicyDeadly Force
138 Entry Operations are extremely hazardous for law enforcement Entry Operations are extremely hazardous for law enforcement. Each officer must prepare and maintain their mental, physical, and skill levels for the best outcome for all operations where entries are required. S.O.P for each agency and team must be constantly reviewed and strictly adhered.