Where does crime occur? http://www.police.vic.gov.au/content.asp?a=internetBridgingPage&Media_ID=72176
A German university campus setting. Factors measured: Physical environment Psychological factors Biological sex Previous experiences Variables: Opportunities for escape / entrapment Opportunities for concealment Lighting levels Blobaum & Huneke, Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space Environment and Behaviour Research, Jan 2005 Perceived danger in urban public space Where do we feel unsafe?
The impacts of physical features and personal factors Findings: Anticipated entrapment is strongest predictor of perception of danger Biological sex is next strongest predictor; followed by concealment and lighting What works with what? 1.Where low entrapment potential, then increasing lighting important 2.Where high entrapment potential, then reducing concealment important (increasing lighting is not effective here) Blobaum & Huneke, Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space Environment and Behaviour Research, Jan 2005 Where do we feel unsafe? Perceived danger in urban public space:
The principles for safer design are to: Maximise visibility and surveillance of the public environment Provide safe movement, good connections and access Maximise activity in public places Clearly define private and public space responsibilities Manage public space to ensure that it is attractive and well used Safer Design Guidelines for Victoria 2005 http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/planning/urbandesign/guidelines/safer-design-guidelines
DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria, 2013 Objective: To provide high amenity and safe interfaces between different uses Where lots border a public open space, allow for development with an active frontage toward the public open space. TIP: Public spaces bounded by blank rear or side fences limit the opportunity for informal surveillance and reduce security for public space users and for properties lining the public space (See Element 3 Public spaces).
Objective: To maximise the convenience and safety of walking and cycling modes. Co-locate pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle paths. TIP: Co-locating mode paths increases the likelihood of informal surveillance, as there are more people on the street, more of the time. Pedestrian-only malls with low levels of activity can feel unsafe. DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria
Objective: To ensure the interface between the street and buildings supports pedestrian amenity and safety. Arrange doors and windows of buildings to overlook the street. DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria
Promptly remove graffiti and replace damaged furniture. TIP: Damaged public furniture should be quickly removed and replaced to reinforce care and the perception of a safe environment. Objective: To maintain clean, attractive and serviceable streets DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria
Connect the public space to the surrounding pedestrian network. Locate entry paths with clear views to other exits. Continue pedestrian paths through the public space with direct, logical routes. TIP: Pedestrians feel safer when a public space has an obvious through path, with frequent ‘escape routes’ linking to surrounding streets. Objective: To ensure all users have convenient and safe access to and through public spaces. DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria
Select tree species with clear trunks, and no branches or foliage below 2500mm in height. TIP: Foliage free zones between 600mm and 2500mm from the ground allow clear sightlines and eliminate opportunities for concealment. Select shrub and ground cover plantings to be no more than 600mm in height. TIP: In areas behind a non-climbable fence or screen, plantings may be greater than 600mm, as the fence provides protection. Position trees and planting to allow clear sightlines along streets and across the different mode paths. Position trees away from overhead wires and public lighting. Objective: To ensure trees and planting support the safety and amenity of public space. DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria
Objective: To support night-time social activity, amenity and safety in the public realm Locate lighting for safe travel and way- finding along pedestrian and bicycle paths, and to emphasise landmarks and destinations. Light only those public space areas and paths intended for night use. TIP: Absence of lighting can identify areas to avoid. DRAFT - Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria
What makes people feel unsafe? 1. An uninhabited space with: no visible escape routes places where a potential assailant could hide 2. Being a female person in a lonely space Summing up
What makes a place feel safer and lowers potential for crime? - people about in public spaces - active uses within surrounding buildings - windows overlooking a public space - direct paths & exits - no hiding places These are low cost, embedded attributes that cost little for ongoing resourcing. Summing up