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Buenos Aires, 7 al 10 de agosto de 2012 Environmentally Friendly Drilling Fluids for Unconventional Shale James Friedheim Quan Guo M-I SWACO.

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Presentation on theme: "Buenos Aires, 7 al 10 de agosto de 2012 Environmentally Friendly Drilling Fluids for Unconventional Shale James Friedheim Quan Guo M-I SWACO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Buenos Aires, 7 al 10 de agosto de 2012 Environmentally Friendly Drilling Fluids for Unconventional Shale James Friedheim Quan Guo M-I SWACO

2 Shale Gas in Argentina “Argentina is the country with the third highest geological potential for these types of hydrocarbons (shale gas), after China and the United States” Overview of Argentina Shale Gas Fields – (from Investment U article The Next Big Shale Gas Boom by Justin Dove, Investment U Research; Friday, October 7, 2011)The Next Big Shale Gas BoomJustin Dove The study assessed the viability of 48 shale gas basins in 32 countries and estimated Argentina’s shale gas reserves at 774 trillion cubic feet (TCF), 60 times greater than the country’s current conventional reserves. Furthermore, Argentina possesses almost 12% of the global shale gas resources, with the Neuquen Basis showing greatest potential. - Annual Energy Outlook 2011

3 All Shale Not the Same! High Reactivity Shale Massive structure Lack of bedding planes or evident laminations Soft Plastic Sticky CEC >20 meq/100g Predominance of Smectite Moderate Reactivity shale Moderate laminated structure Bedding structure Easily broken Not plastic CEC 10-20 meq/100 g Presence of smectite and Illite approximately similar proportion Low Reactivity Shale Strongly laminated structure Fissile Brittle (Break along lamination) Hard and firm consolidation Not sticky CEC <10 meq/100g Predominance of illite  Unconventional resource requires unconventional thinking

4 Traditional Fluids Selection Techniques May Not Apply…..  Effective and useful shale-fluids interaction tests – Shale Hydration Test, Dispersion Test, Slake Durability Test, …  These traditional shale-fluids interaction and fluids selection tests are not effective for gas shale

5 Shale Play – Fluid Design  Each shale play is different and fluids should be tailored for each formation  Shale plays are usually less reactive (swelling), but are micro-fractured and can be very easily destabilized by fluid or filtrate  The overburden is different  Some High-Temperature shale plays (such as Haynesville) demand temperature stability, good rheology and densities up to > 19 ppg Marcellus Shale Core6711.05 – 6711.6 ft Smectite4% Illite25% Quartz47% Feldspar10% Pyrite5% Chlorite6% Ankerite3% CEC, (meq/100gr)3 Permeability (nd)19 @ 3000 psi Permeability (nd)6 @ 6000 psi Porosity10% Total organic content 9% Oil/Gas Shales Tend to be Hard and Organically Rich Old Shales Still Can Be Unstable in Freshwater Fracture Tendency Allows Water Access

6 OBM/SBM Still Drilling Fluid Predominately Used Advantages – Cost* – Readily available* – Good temperature stability – Provides good hole stability & shale stability – Tolerates contaminants well – Low torque & drag while drilling & running casing Concerns – Cost** – Availability** – Downhole losses Concerns Environmental Acceptability Toxic Compounds* Slow degradation Rates* Cuttings Disposal (except PARALAND) Human Exposure Factors High vapor emissions Aromatic & Cyclic hydrocarbons in the vapor, and consider carcinogenic* *) diesel **)synthetics

7 Shale Gas Water-based Mud Design Develop a low cost, environmentally friendly WBM drilling fluid (fresh water) for the shale plays Straight-forward, simple, cost-conscious design. Environmentally friendly – precludes the use of chloride-containing materials. Provide shale stability to low-reactivity, fissile shale Physical Plugging Blocks entry of fluid into the formation No decrease in stability Inert chemistry  Water invasion into the shale formations weakens the wellbore – not so much a chemical process! – Normal fluid loss additives are not able to form a filter cake and therefore cannot stop the invasion of fluids, especially water.  Focus more on wellbore stability than shale inhibition for long open hole section using WBM  Address issue of lubricity for both drilling and running casing Goal Concept high permeability thick filter cake low permeability virtually no filter cake

8 SMT (Shale Membrane Test) Paper # Paper Title Presenter Name Fluid at fixed flow rate and pressure Pressurized with brine that matches the water activity of the shale Pressure differences ∆P(t) at top and bottom are used to calculate permeability properties 300 psi Epoxy 50 psi Top Cap Base Typical Test Regime 1.Brine matches water activity of the shale 2.Brine/Drilling fluid 3.Nanomaterial and drilling fluid 4.Can be repeated several times P1 P2

9 SMT Results † Atoka Shale † ) Sensoy, T, Chenevert, M. E. and Sharma, M. “Minimizing Water Invasion in Shales Using Nanoparticles.” paper SPE 124429 presented at the 2009 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 4-7 October 2009, New Orleans, Louisiana. P1 P2

10 What do we mean by Nano Particles?

11 CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION © 2009 M-I L.L.C. WARP 1.5 μm Virus 150 nm Barite – 15,000 nm WARP – 1,500 nm Barite – 15,000 nm WARP – 1,500 nm Flu virus – 150 nm Barite – 15,000 nm WARP – 1,500 nm Flu virus – 150 nm Nanoparticles – 15 nm

12 Silica Nanoparticle Screening Design Considerations Cost Various coatings/treatments & Number of treatments Reactive groups Temperature stability Rheology effects Sizes 5-100 nm Compatibility with ions in a range of concentrations Faster tests and better availability than shale samples 5 nm10-30 nm40-50 nm70-100 nm

13 Nanoparticle Characterization Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) performed at Rice University Right image is the best performing sample The images will be used to better understand their filtration behavior 40000x magnification, scale bar 50 nm

14 Optimizing Nanoparticle Loading Full mud formulation designed for maximum efficiency Loading reduced from 29% to 3% (10 ppb, Nanoparticle slurry) Permeability reduction is permanent Strong stabilization of shale by blocking fluid access StepTest FluidPermeability, nDPermeability Reduction, % 1 4% NaCl Brine 0.153- 2 WBM with 3% w/v of nanosilica 0.004297.2% 3 4% NaCl Brine 0.003597.6%

15 General Fluid Formulation Duovis: xanthan based rheology modifier which gives us suspension properties EMI-690 sufonated styrene-butadiene copolymer with optimized fluid loss performance Resinex: Phenol formaldehyde resin used for additional filtration control Glydril GP 100: blend of glycols used for shale inhibition, fluid loss and baseline friction coefficient reduction Lubricant: General purpose Lubricant for WBM, usually vegetable oil derivative EMI-2545: Nanosilica solution for physical shale plugging PropertyValue Period Aged16 Temperature150 Fann 35 viscometer data 600 rpm120 300 rpm 46 200 rpm 36 100 rpm 24 6 rpm 8 3 rpm 6 10 s 6 10 min 8 PV 28 YP 18 EMS 2520

16 Fracture Shale Consideration Formulated drilling fluid with 10ppb nanoparticles (10% EMI-2545) 99% reduction in shale permeability Permeability reduction held after flushing with brine (88% after 6 hours) Fracture

17 Additional Data on EMS 2520 Effect of lubricant package seen at higher loadings Mysid Shrimp testing both additive (nanosilica) and Shale Gas Drilling Fluid easily pass LC50 protocol Environmental Testing

18 Summary Novel approach to shale stabilization specifically focused on Unconventional Shale Plays source Rock by physical plugging of Shale Pores utilizing Nanoparticles: Provides high stability Especially coupled with designed fluid formulation (EMS- 2520) even for fractured shale Environmentally designed (freshwater (without chlorides)) Applicable for HT fluids Applicability to other type of shale  Couple with chemical inhibition Robust testing protocol Performance additives for enhanced lubricity

19 Thank You We would like to thank Dr Ji Lou for his support and help on the SMT equipment and work. Questions?

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